Cephalopoda | Oegopsida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Pelagic; depth range 0 - 1200 m (Ref. 1982). Tropical; 4°C - 32°C (Ref. 1982), preferred 26°C (Ref. 107945); 60°N - 53°S, 169°W - 70°W
Eastern Pacific. From south of Bering Strait to Gulf of Alaska, east to Gulf of California and south to Chile. Tropical to boreal.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 29.7  range ? - ? cm Max length : 400 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 275); common length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 275); max. published weight: 3.0 kg (Ref. 275)
Common total length: 50 to 80 cm. Caught by jigs (Ref. 275). Maximum total length is 4 m. Common length is about 50 to 80cm (Ref. 3722).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults.
Roper, C.F.E., M.J. Sweeney and C.E. Nauen. 1984. (Ref. 275)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
FAO - Fisheries: landings, species profile | FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates based on models
High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.17-1.2; tm=0.53).
): 7.8 - 13.8, mean 10.8 (based on 88 cells).
Prior r = 1.19, 95% CL = 0.79 - 1.79, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Very high vulnerability (90 of 100).
Nutrients: Calcium = 126 [75, 177] mg/100g; Iron = 4.79 [1.67, 7.92] mg/100g; Protein = 15.5 [13.7, 17.4] %; Omega3 = 0.414 [0.262, 0.566] g/100g; Selenium = 57.8 [48.5, 67.2] μg/100g; VitaminA = 0 μg/100g; Zinc = 1.97 [0.92, 3.02] mg/100g (wet weight).