Ascidiacea | Aplousobranchia
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Sessile; depth range 0 - 1000 m (Ref. 3435). Polar
Southwest Atlantic, Southeast Pacific and the Antarctic: From Antarctica to South America.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 8.0 cm COLD male/unsexed; (Ref. 3373)
Maximum depth from Ref. 3373. Colony is up to 700 cm long and 8 cm in diameter (Ref. 3373).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Ascidiacea are hermaphroditic; both cross- and self-fertilization is typical. Life cycle: Eggs develop into lecithotrophic larva before metamorphosing into benthic adults.
Tatian, M., R.J. Sahade, M.E. Doucet and G.B. Esnal. 1998. (Ref. 1753)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates based on models
): -1.8 - 6, mean -0.2 (based on 778 cells).
Low vulnerability (10 of 100).