Scyphozoa | Semaeostomeae
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Pelagic; brackish; depth range 0 - 1250 m (Ref. 116114). Subtropical; 78°N - 55°S, 180°W - 180°E
Circumglobal. This species is widespread in all the seas of the sphere, from the equator to the poles. Subtropical to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 2 - 31 cm Max length : 50.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 2376)
Maximum diameter: 50 cm (Ref. 358); Height, from 10 to 12.5 cm; diameter, being able to reach 40 to 50 cm (Ref. 363). Plane sunshade; comprising very many tentacles courts with the periphery. One counts 4 oral arms; and 4 sexual organs; of annular form or in the horseshoe shape very many radiate channels. Coloring: generally translucent, with slightly pink reflections, blue or purple; the sexual organs are more clearly colored red or pink (Ref. 358).
This species is being eaten by predators because of its high fatty acid content (Ref. 122155). Neritic, potentially pathogenic (Ref. 116114). Free living near the water's surface in pelagic zones (Ref. 2997), close to coasts (Ref. 358), and offshore (Ref. 813); also found in brackish waters (Ref. 2993), coastal embayments, fjords and estuaries (Ref. 3289). Their cnidocytes cannot transpierce the human skin. Suspension feeder (Ref. 3269) on tintinnids, rotifers, cladocerans and larvae of copepods (harpacticoid), barnacles (nauplii; Ref. 3053) and on fish larvae (Ref. 7715). Several cases reported sea anemones to feed on this species; fungiid coral is also an occasional feeder. Provides vital fatty acids for fishes and crustacean predators. Nutritional value of this species from macronutrients and key fatty acids appears to be important over only meeting a predator's energy demands (Ref. 122155).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
High abundances of ephyrae during late autumn can be explained by the large number of poly disc scyphistomae preceding to the appearance of ephyrae (Ref. 3062). Polyps begin to develop in August-September, matures in October and dies in November (Ref. 3271). Budding doesn’t occur in winter months (Ref. 7721). Can live up to 2 years (Ref. 3049).
Wrobel, D. and C.E. Mills. 1998. (Ref. 2376)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 127697)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 4.7 - 25.3, mean 12.3 (based on 3533 cells).
Low vulnerability (25 of 100).