Actinopyga miliaris   (Quoy & Gaimard, 1833)

Hairy blackfish

Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2050
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Actinopyga miliaris  AquaMaps  Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Actinopyga miliaris

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS

Holothuroidea | Holothuriida | Holothuriidae

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Reef-associated; depth range 0 - 20 m (Ref. 122), usually 0 - 12 m (Ref. 92930).  Tropical; 30°N - 28°S, 32°E - 134°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Indo- Pacific, including the Red Sea, but excluding the Persian Gulf and Hawaii.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 122); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 122); max. published weight: 2.0 kg (Ref. 418)

Short description Morphology

Body Width: 10 cm. Body thickness: 0.9 cm (Ref. 418); 6mm (Ref. 122). Body elongate, cylindrical, slightly arched dorsally (bivium) and flattened ventrally (trivium). Bivium covered by mucus and fine sediment. Papillae on bivium numerous, long and slender; long and thick podia on trivium arranged more or less regularly in tight rows on the radii; calcareous disc of podia around 700 micrometer in diameter. Mouth ventral, surround by 20 stout tentacles. Anus surrounded by 5 strong, triangular anal teeth. Calcareous ring with large radial pieces and narrow interradials. Cuvierian tubules absent. Color of bivium black; trivium lighter, dark brown. Spicules on ventral tegument with variety of simple or more complicated rosettes; dorsal tegument with rosette; ventral and dorsal podia with some rosettes; podia and papillae containing large spicules; tentacles with large rods.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Biology poorly known. Harvested by artisanal fisheries throughout the area. Collected by hand while wading on the reefs at low tide, or by divers. Processed product is not distinguished from those of other Actinopyga species; moderate commercial value. Maximum depth from Ref. 92930. Dwelling in moderately shallow waters; mostly on reef flats of fringing and lagoon-islet reefs, never on barrier reefs; common in sandy beds (Ref. 92930) and abundant in seagrass beds and on rubble reef flats where populations can reach high densities up to 1 square meter (Ref. 122). Feeds mainly on epiphytes and seagrass leaves (Ref. 122). Gregarious in nature (Ref. 118). Found in waters less than 30m, among rocks and boulders (Ref. 129602).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Conand, C. 1998. (Ref. 122)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 130435)

  Vulnerable (VU) (A2bd); Date assessed: 15 May 2010

CITES status (Ref. 108899)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

Fisheries: commercial
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More information

Common names
Egg development
Mass conversion

Internet sources

BHL | BOLD Systems | CISTI | DiscoverLife | FAO(Publication : search) | Fishipedia | GenBank (genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | Gomexsi | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | PubMed | Tree of Life | Wikipedia (Go, Search) | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 25.2 - 29.3, mean 28.5 (based on 3470 cells).
Vulnerability (Ref. 71543): Low vulnerability (25 of 100).
Price category (Ref. 80766): Unknown.