Cephalopoda | Myopsida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Demersal; brackish; depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 275). Tropical; 51°N - 48°S, 22°E - 155°W (Ref. 106950)
Indo-Pacific: from Japan to Australia and New Zealand coasts, from Hawaii to the East African coast, north to Red Sea and south to Madagascar. Introduced in the Mediterranean Sea.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 40.1 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 121859); max. published weight: 1.80 g (Ref. 275)
Also caught by set nets and spears and jigs. Demersal neritic species (Ref. 105081). Inhabits warm coastal waters (Ref. 101164). Found among rock reefs, seaweeds and estuaries (Ref. 105081). Primarily active at night and is found in shallow waters, from 0 to 100 m in depth. Moves to deeper waters or in proximity to floating driftwood, reefs, rocks, or seagrasses during daylight. Often solitary (Ref. 101164). Voracious (Ref. 101165) and strictly carnivorous (Ref. 101164). Mainly consumes mollusks, fishes (Ref. 101164) and prawns (Ref. 101165). Utilizes its characteristic tentacles to catch live prey (Ref. 101164). Exhibits cannibalism on smaller conspecifics (Ref. 101164) or among size classes (Ref. 101165).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults.
Roper, C.F.E., M.J. Sweeney and C.E. Nauen. 1984. (Ref. 275)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
FAO - Fisheries: landings | FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates based on models
High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.73-1.25).
): 23 - 29.1, mean 28 (based on 2210 cells).
Low vulnerability (19 of 100).
Nutrients: Calcium = 126 [75, 177] mg/100g; Iron = 4.79 [1.67, 7.92] mg/100g; Protein = 15.5 [13.7, 17.4] %; Omega3 = 0.414 [0.262, 0.566] g/100g; Selenium = 57.8 [48.5, 67.2] μg/100g; VitaminA = 0 μg/100g; Zinc = 1.97 [0.92, 3.02] mg/100g (wet weight).