Stichopus horrens   Selenka, 1867

Selenka's sea cucumber

Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2050
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Stichopus horrens  AquaMaps  Data sources: GBIF OBIS
Upload your photos 
| All pictures | Google image |
Image of Stichopus horrens (Selenka\
Stichopus horrens

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS

Holothuroidea | Synallactida | Stichopodidae

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Reef-associated; depth range 0 - 25 m (Ref. 122).  Tropical

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions


Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 27 - ? cm Max length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 118); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 122); max. published weight: 2.5 kg (Ref. 122)

Short description Morphology

Mean live weight 200 to 2500 g; body-wall thickness 0.2-0.8 cm. Body firm, rigid, square-ish in cross-section, flattened ventrally (trivium); body wall easily disintegrates outside sea water. Bivium covered with irregular warts, arranged in 8-10 longitudinal rows, with smaller papillae in between; warts larger near mouth. Trivium with yellow to pink podia delimited by a characteristic double row of large papillae 4 to 5 mm; stout podia arranged in 4 rows, on 3 radial bands, their disc about 380 micrometer in diameter. Mouth ventral, surrounded by a half row of papillae and 18 brown, short tentacles. Anus terminal. Calcareous ring with deeply indented radial pieces and triangular interradials. Cuvierian tubules absent. Bivium whitish to grey, with brown irregular dots; trivium lighter. Spicules with very characteristic rosettes, X-shaped, or elongate, numerous in the tegument; presence of numerous C-shaped spicules of 3 sizes; ventral tegument with tables of 2 sizes; some tables have a circular disc with 4 central and about 15 peripheral holes, bearing a spire with 4 pillars ending in a moderately spiny and cross-shaped crown; tables with a larger disc also present, more perforated, with a higher, spiny crown; only the first kind table found in the dorsal tegument; tables in papillae provided with a very large multiperforated disc, with a long, conical, smooth spire, ending in a single point; ventral papillae containing long, smooth rods; ventral podia have long rods, with central apophasis, and large elongate, multiperforated plates; tentacles with large rods, narrow, either curved with few spines, or straight and very spiny; X-, S-, and C-shaped small spicules.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Probably not harvested, as the tegument disintegrates too quickly. An aquaculture programme for this species is presently being carried out for stock enhancement purposes. A reef species mostly found in shallow areas in coastal reef and lagoons from near the surface to a depth of 25 m; generally occurs in seagrass beds, rubbles or hidden in reef flats or dead corals (Ref. 800), and muddy-sand bottoms (Ref. 122); on algal beds and on clean sandy bottoms. A pea crab is known to live in the cloacal chamber (Ref. 118). A nocturnal species. Populations not reaching high densities, with mean of around 0.007 per square meter. Biology poorly known (Ref. 122).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Sexual reproduction takes place during warm season. A species with a low potential fecundity and late sexual maturity (Ref. 122). Members of the class Holothuroidea are gonochoric and have only one gonad. Spawning and fertilization are both external and some exhibit brooding. Life cycle: Embryos develop into planktotrophic larvae (auricularia) then into doliolaria (barrel-shaped stage) which later metamorphose into juvenile sea cucumbers (Ref. 833).

Main reference References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Conand, C. 1998. (Ref. 122)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 130435)

  Data deficient (DD) ; Date assessed: 18 May 2010

CITES status (Ref. 108899)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

Fisheries: commercial
| FishSource | Sea Around Us


More information

FAO areas
Food items
Mass conversion

Internet sources

BHL | BOLD Systems | CISTI | DiscoverLife | FAO(Publication : search) | Fishipedia | GenBank (genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | Gomexsi | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | PubMed | Tree of Life | Wikipedia (Go, Search) | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.7 - 29.3, mean 28.4 (based on 3265 cells).
Vulnerability (Ref. 71543): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100).
Price category (Ref. 80766): Unknown.
Nutrients: Calcium = 126 [75, 177] mg/100g; Iron = 4.79 [1.67, 7.92] mg/100g; Protein = 16.6 [15.4, 17.8] %; Omega3 = 0.331 [0.263, 0.400] g/100g; Selenium = 57.8 [48.5, 67.2] μg/100g; VitaminA = 0 μg/100g; Zinc = 1.97 [0.92, 3.02] mg/100g (wet weight).