Stichopus chloronotus   Brandt, 1835


Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2050
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Stichopus chloronotus  AquaMaps  Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Stichopus chloronotus

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS

Holothuroidea | Synallactida | Stichopodidae

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Reef-associated; depth range 0 - 15 m (Ref. 122).  Tropical; 36°N - 35°S, 29°E - 134°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Indo-Pacific, excluding Persian Gulf and Hawaii. Tropical and subtropical.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 75656); common length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 122); max. published weight: 1.5 kg (Ref. 75656)

Short description Morphology

Mean live weight: 100-400 g. Body-wall thickness 0.2 cm. Body firm, rigid with quadrangular section, flattened ventrally (trivium); body wall easily disintegrates outside sea water. Radii of bivium with characteristic double row of large papillae, each radius ending in a small red or orange papilla. Trivium delimited by characteristic double row of large papillae; stout podia arranged regularly on 3 radial bands, with 10 rows in the medio-ventral band and 5 in the lateral. Mouth ventral, surrounded by a row of papillae and 20 green, stout tentacles. Anus terminal. Calcareous ring with large radial pieces and narrow interradials. Cuvierian tubules absent. Cloaca large and greenish. Bivium dark green to black; trivium lighter. Spicules with very characteristic tables with a narrow disc showing 4 holes, bearing a spire generally ending in a moderately spiny crown; tables with larger disc and simpler crown also present; presence of many C-shaped spicules; rosettes absent; tables in dorsal with have a large multiperforated disc, bearing a large spire; ventral papillae with long, smooth rods; ventral podia with denticulate rods and large multiperforated plates; tentacles with smooth and granular rods.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Probably harvested in some artisanal fisheries of the area. Collected by hand at low tide, or by divers. The processed product is of low commercial value. A reef species mostly found in shallow areas from near the surface to a depth of 15 m (Ref. 122). Found on sandy areas (Ref. 115900) and generally occurs on reef flats and upper slopes. Populations reaching high densities on hard substrates, with a mean of around 0.04 per square meter. Shallow water populations are generally smaller in size than those found in deeper waters. Biology poorly known (Ref. 122).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Members of the class Holothuroidea are gonochoric and have only one gonad. Spawning and fertilization are both external and some exhibit brooding. Life cycle: Embryos develop into planktotrophic larvae (auricularia) then into doliolaria (barrel-shaped stage) which later metamorphose into juvenile sea cucumbers.

Main reference References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Conand, C. 1998. (Ref. 122)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 130435)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 18 May 2010

CITES status (Ref. 108899)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial
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More information

FAO areas
Food items
Common names
Egg development

Internet sources

BHL | BOLD Systems | CISTI | DiscoverLife | FAO(Publication : search) | Fishipedia | GenBank (genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | Gomexsi | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | PubMed | Tree of Life | Wikipedia (Go, Search) | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.7 - 29.3, mean 28.4 (based on 3352 cells).
Resilience (Ref. 69278): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.45).
Vulnerability (Ref. 71543): Low vulnerability (25 of 100).
Price category (Ref. 80766): Unknown.