Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Indo-Pacific, Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean and Black Sea.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 78.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 84934); max. published weight: 320.00 g (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 6.35 cm; tarsus: 4.66 cm; wing: 28.58 cm.
Total Length: 38 to 40 cm; Wingspan: 89 to 96 cm (Ref. 8812). Found along shores and over sea (Ref. 83946); over deep water far, <1000 km offshore. Exhibits dipping behavior (Ref. 81748). Generally pelagic during non-breeding season. Loosely colonial. Solitary at sea. Commonly trail ships (Ref. 91362).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Lepage, D. 2007. (Ref. 7816)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100)