Cephalopoda | Octopoda
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 75927); depth range 0 - 347 m (Ref. 417), usually 0 - 100 m (Ref. 1977). Tropical; ? - 7°C (Ref. 275), preferred 26°C (Ref. 107945); 57°N - 38°S, 98°W - 146°E (Ref. 275)
Circumglobal in temperate and tropical seas.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 8 - 11.3 cm Max length : 130 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 804); 120 cm TL (female); max. published weight: 10.0 kg (Ref. 275)
Maximum common depth is 150 m in Ref. 75927. Maximum length for male/unsexed from Ref. 114257. Maximum depth range from Ref. 114857. Inhabits rocky, sandy and muddy bottoms of the coastline to the edge of the continental shelf (Ref. 2133). Found in intertidal and subtidal areas (Ref. 83938).
Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults.
Roper, C.F.E., M.J. Sweeney and C.E. Nauen. 1984. (Ref. 275)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 127697)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
FAO - Fisheries: landings, species profile | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates of some properties based on models
High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
): 10 - 28.9, mean 25.8 (based on 8514 cells).
Prior r = 0.81, 95% CL = 0.53 - 1.21, Based on 14 stock assessments.
Very high vulnerability (78 of 100).