Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; depth range 0 - 36 m (Ref. 83435). Subtropical, preferred 17°C (Ref. 107945); 49°N - 30°N, 80°E - 65°W (Ref. 83435)
Atlantic and the Mediterranean.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 13.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7726); max. reported age: 9 years (Ref. 2823)
Maximum depth from Ref. 104365. Found buried in muddy sediment on the lower shore and shallow sublittoral and in bays and estuaries. Prefers sandy environments to depths of 15 m (Ref. 78574). Members of the class Bivalvia are mostly gonochoric, some are protandric hermaphrodites. Life cycle: Embryos develop into free-swimming trocophore larvae, succeeded by the bivalve veliger, resembling a miniature clam (Ref. 833).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Bivalvia are mostly gonochoric, some are protandric hermaphrodites. Life cycle: Embryos develop into free-swimming trocophore larvae, succeeded by the bivalve veliger, resembling a miniature clam.
Harvey-Clark, C. 1997. (Ref. 7726)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
FAO(Aquaculture: production, fisheries: production) | FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 8.8 - 23.7, mean 13.2 (based on 120 cells).
Prior r = 0.43, 95% CL = 0.28 - 0.65, Based on 3 stock assessments.
Low to moderate vulnerability (25 of 100)