Gymnolaemata | Cheilostomatida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Sessile; depth range 0 - 28 m (Ref. 865). Temperate
Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 5.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 865)
Size refers to diameter (Ref. 865). Found on Laminaria fronds and holdfast and on rocks (Ref. 1442). An epibenthic suspension/filter feeder; omnivorous, thrives on particulate organic matter and phytoplankton (Ref. 93816).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the phylum Bryozoa are hermaphroditic. Both fertilization and egg brooding may either be internal or external.
Hayward, P.J. 1971. (Ref. 1442)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates based on models
): 8.1 - 16.1, mean 10.7 (based on 1053 cells).