Gastropoda | Littorinimorpha
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; brackish; depth range 0 - 60 m (Ref. 83435). Temperate, preferred 11°C (Ref. 107945); 81°N - 22°N, 55°W - 58°E (Ref. 83435)
Northeast Atlantic: from west Greenland to Kandalaksha Bay, White Sea, down to Portugal. Said to occur in the Mediterranean during the Pleistocene with records up to the Persian Gulf. Distribution in Iceland possibly true due to its occurrence up to west Greenland. Temperate to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 1 - 1 cm Max length : 4.2 cm DL male/unsexed; (Ref. 83435); max. reported age: 5 years (Ref. 2823)
Found in intertidal and subtidal flats (Refs. 2823, 106899). In shallow and deep subtidal mussel beds of Mytilus edulis. Occurs in both hard substrates and in soft bottoms, particularly on stones, boulders, on muddy and sandy tidal flats. Also macrophytes such as Fucus and Zostera spp. Herbivorous grazer, feeding on microalgal films (diatoms) from the shell surfaces of mussels, sporelings of ephemeral algae and young barnacles (Ref. 106899).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Healy, B. 1997. (Ref. 2779)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
FAO - Fisheries: landings | FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 11.6 - 15.4, mean 12.4 (based on 72 cells).