Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Indo-Pacific and Western Central Atlantic. Tropical and subtropical.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 1.9 kg (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 10.4 cm; tarsus: 8.5 cm; wing: 55.5 cm.
Total Length: 86 to 100 cm; Wingspan: 206 to 230 cm (Ref. 8812). Found offshore and in tropical oceanic islands (Ref. 356). Colonial breeder, typically in trees and bushes. Gregarious; trails ships (Ref. 91362). Exhibits dipping behavior and piracy (Ref. 356).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Schlatter, R.P. and A. Simeone. 1999. (Ref. 5962)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 9.3 - 21.1, mean 14.1 (based on 581 cells).
High vulnerability (60 of 100)