Aves | Charadriiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Pacific Ocean and the Arctic. Subtropical to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cmmax. published weight: 779.00 g (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 5.84 cm; tarsus: 3.61 cm; wing: 20.055 cm.
Plunge diver; continental shelf; <100 km (Ref. 356). Semi-precocial mode of development. Ground nesting species; in burrows. When spotting a threat, adults give out alarm calls to warn chicks who respond by moving to a nearby hiding place. Displays "group flight" behavior. Vulnerable to oil pollution as a piscivore; saw 50% decline in population from 1989 in Prince William Sound after the Exxon Valdez oil spill (Ref. 87784).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Gjerdrum, C. 2004. (Ref. 80101)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 1.2 - 9.7, mean 4.3 (based on 370 cells).