Aves | Charadriiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Northern Atlantic and the Arctic. Boreal to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 381.00 g (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 4.56 cm; tarsus: 2.88 cm; wing: 17.21 cm.
Total Length: 28 to 30 cm; Wingspan: 53 to 58 cm (Ref. 8812). Occupy the continental shelf; <100 km; exhibits plunge-diving feeding behavior (Ref. 356). In the North Sea off the east coast of Scotland and northern England, this species is known to feed on the sandeel, Ammodytes marinus and breeding birds spend approx. 80% of daylight period at sea, commonly in dense rafts. They form nesting colonies with breeding pairs sharing incubation and chick-rearing duties; surface-feeding by scooping prey from the water, they carry prey in their bills and feed their chicks with regurgitated food (Ref. 95711).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Barrett, R.T. and F. Rikardsen. 1992. (Ref. 4091)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 0.5 - 11.8, mean 6.8 (based on 976 cells).
Low vulnerability (20 of 100)