Gastropoda | Cephalaspidea
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; depth range 2 - 1829 m (Ref. 3446), usually 5 - 1096 m (Ref. 3446). Tropical; 89°N - 41°N, 75°W - 0°W (Ref. 3446)
Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Mediterranean and the Arctic: Canadian Artic Archipelago and European waters. Tropical to polar climates.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 0.7 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 822)
Assumed maximum length from Ref. 822. Common in estuarine mud flats, hidden in drying mats of drift eel grass. Predator: shore birds such as Western Sandpipers (Ref. 822). Members of the order Cephalaspidea are mostly simultaneous hermaphrodites (Ref. 833).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the order Cephalaspidea are mostly simultaneous hermaphrodites.
Behrens, D.W. and A. Hermosillo. 2005. (Ref. 822)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 0.4 - 10.3, mean 3.4 (based on 1433 cells).
Low vulnerability (10 of 100)