Demospongiae | Hadromerida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Reef-associated; brackish. Tropical
Western Central Atlantic and Indo-West Pacific.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Thick encrustations that may cover several square meters substratum. Oscules are relatively large, paler and slightly elevated. May be crumbly or tough (Ref. 81728). Grows either irregularly massive, hemispheric, globular, or partly divided into irregular lobes. Encrusting patches cover 1 to 2 m in a round or semi-circular pattern. Smooth and non-porous surface with typical irregular bumps or lobes, often partly covered by sediment. Color: variously yellow, tan, green or brown. Thin encrustations may be dark green. Internally pale yellowish, with a dark brown hemispheric form with an orange interior. Spongin fibers absent. Presence of small anthosigma spicules is a unique and diagnostic characteristic (Ref. 85482).
Common on coral reefs, reef flats, seagrass beds and lagoons. Burrows in dead corals. Sporadic shallow excavations on live corals (Ref. 85482). Also in mangrove ponds (Ref. 86789). Members of the class Demospongiae are hermaphroditic. Life cycle: The zygote develops into parenchymella larva (free-swimming) before settling down on a substrate where it grows into a young sponge (Ref. 833).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Demospongiae are hermaphroditic. Life cycle: The zygote develops into parenchymella larva (free-swimming) before settling down on a substrate where it grows into a young sponge.
Engel, S. and J.R. Pawlik. 2005. (Ref. 837)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 21.1 - 27.5, mean 25.2 (based on 148 cells).