Bivalvia | Cardiida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; brackish; depth range 0 - 5 m (Ref. 125442). Subtropical, preferred 10°C (Ref. 107945); 71°N - 14°N, 17°W - 33°E (Ref. 107077)
Eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and Black Sea: from Portugal to Egypt, north to Norway and Russia then south to Senegal, including Mediterranean and Black Sea. Occurrence in Iran, Persian Gulf is questionable.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 5.6 cm SHL male/unsexed; (Ref. 101424); common length : 3.5 cm SHL male/unsexed; (Ref. 437); max. reported age: 7 years (Ref. 2823)
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Bivalvia are mostly gonochoric, some are protandric hermaphrodites. Life cycle: Embryos develop into free-swimming trocophore larvae, succeeded by the bivalve veliger, resembling a miniature clam.
Fischer, W., G. Bianchi and W.B. Scott (eds.). 1981. (Ref. 437)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
FAO - Aquaculture: production; Fisheries: landings, species profile | FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates based on models
High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.46-0.66; tmax=7).
): 7.6 - 13.7, mean 10.4 (based on 742 cells).
Prior r = 0.49, 95% CL = 0.33 - 0.74, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Low vulnerability (24 of 100).
Nutrients: Calcium = 149 [71, 228] mg/100g; Iron = 8.53 [1.95, 15.11] mg/100g; Protein = 9.88 [8.64, 11.12] %; Omega3 = 0.313 [0.202, 0.423] g/100g; Selenium = 61 [50, 72] μg/100g; VitaminA = 0 μg/100g; Zinc = 2.04 [0.56, 3.51] mg/100g (wet weight).