Bivalvia | Mytilida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; depth range 0 - 40 m (Ref. 125441). Temperate; 7°C - 16°C (Ref. 78191), preferred 12°C (Ref. 107945); 11°S - 58°S, 78°W - 160°E
South Pacific, Southern Atlantic, and Antarctic Indian Ocean: From southern Brazil to Tierra del Fuego in the Atlantic and from Beagle Channel to El Callo, Peru. Also from South Africa to Namibia, Kerguelen and Macquarie Island. Introduced in UK. Tropical to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 2 - ? cm Max length : 9.5 cm SHL male/unsexed; (Ref. 109255)
Length information from sampling in the Patagonian shelf. Collected individuals were 47-63 mm in length (Ref. 78355). Found in shallow subtidal benthic communities of two islands in Saldanha Bay (Ref. 78353) and dominated the sessile fauna of Robben Island at depths beyond 17 m (Ref. 78192). Found attached to rocky substrates, associated with holdfasts of juvenile brown algae, and may occasionally reach greater depths; may be found isolated in intertidal or forming large banks in eulittoral (Ref. 87801). It is also found in forests of Macrocystis pyrifera (Ref. 92889).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Bivalvia are mostly gonochoric, some are protandric hermaphrodites. Life cycle: Embryos develop into free-swimming trocophore larvae, succeeded by the bivalve veliger, resembling a miniature clam.
SAUP Database. 2006. (Ref. 356)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 127697)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
FAO - Aquaculture: production; Fisheries: landings, species profile | FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 6.9 - 17.1, mean 11.6 (based on 396 cells).
Low vulnerability (10 of 100).