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(English) Characters in two taxa are considered homolog if they meet one of two conditions: 1) they are the same character that is found in an immediate common ancestor of the two taxa; or 2) the character is in one taxon the same as in the immediate ancestor and is in the other taxon the same but modified (derived) from the state in the common ancestor. The ancestral (= primitive) character is termed plesiomorphic, while the derived (= novel) character is termed apomorphic. (See also: homoplasy, character, tree)
(French) CaractĂšres des deux taxa : 1) mĂȘme caractĂšre trouvĂ© dans un ancĂȘtre commun immĂ©diat des deux taxa ; ou 2) mĂȘme caractĂšre trouvĂ© dans l'ancĂȘtre immĂ©diat d'un taxon et de l'autre taxon, mĂȘme caractĂšre modifiĂ© (dĂ©rivĂ©) trouvĂ© dans l'ancĂȘtre commun. Le caractĂšre ancestral (= primitif) est appelĂ© 'plĂ©siomorphe', pendant que le caractĂšre dĂ©rivĂ© (= nouveau) est appelĂ© 'apomorphe'. (See also: homoplasy, character, tree)

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