Biodiversity in Panama (PAN)
  FishBase Complete Literature Reference
Species Families Species Families
Marine 1499 453 No
Freshwater 14 7 No
Total 1564 471 No
Conservation The following information is to be sought: - Status of knowledge of the freshwater fauna; - Existence of conservation plans; - Information on major aquatic habitats or sites within the country; - Current major threats to species; - Future potential threats to species; - Contact(s) for further information.
Geography and Climate Panama is located in Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Colombia and Costa Rica. Area - comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina. Total land boundary is 555 km, border countries are Colombia 225 km, Costa Rica 330 km. Climate is tropical; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (May to January), short dry season (January to May). Terrain consists of interior mostly steep, rugged mountains and dissected, upland plains; coastal areas largely plains and rolling hills. Elevation extreme has the lowest point in Pacific Ocean 0 m and highest point in Volcan de Chiriqui 3,475 m. Natural resources are copper, mahogany forests, shrimp. Land use: arable land: 7%, permanent crops: 2%, permanent pastures: 20%, forests and woodland: 44%, other: 27% (1993 est.). Irrigated land: 320 sq km (1993 est.). Environment—current issues: water pollution from agricultural runoff threatens fishery resources; deforestation of tropical rain forest; land degradation. Geography—note: strategic location on eastern end of isthmus forming land bridge connecting North and South America; controls Panama Canal that links North Atlantic Ocean via Caribbean Sea with North Pacific Ocean.

Ref.  Anonymous, 1999
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