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References used for species in the Family Molgulidae
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[ n = 150 ] 
Abdul Jaffar Ali, H. and M. Tamilselvi, 2016 Ascidians in coastal water: a comprehensive inventory if ascidian fauna from the Indian coast. Springer, 157 p.
Alcock, A., 1901 A descriptive catalogue of the Indian deep-sea Crustacea Decapoda Macrura and Anomala in the Indian museum. Being a revised account of the deep-sea species collected by the Royal Indian Marine Survey Ship Investigator. 286 p. + plates 1-3.
Allen, M.J., T. Mikel, D.. Cadien, J.E. Kalman, E.T. Jarvis, K.C. Schiff, D.W. Diehl, S.L. Moore, S. Walther, G. Deets, C. Cash, S. Watts, D.J. Pondella, V. Raco-Rands, C. Thomas, R. Gartman, L. Sabin, W. Power, A. Groce, J. Armstrong, 2007 Appendix F - Glossary and Nomenclature. [Accessed 31/05/2017].
Arnaud, P.M., 1974 Contribution à la bionomie marine benthique des régions antarctiques et subantarctiques. Téthys 6(3):467-653.
Atkinson, E.G. and J.W. Wacasey, 1976 Caloric values of zoobenthos and phytobenthos from the Canadian Arctic. Department of the Environment, Fishieries and Marine Service, Technical Report 632:1-23.
Australian Biological Resources Study, 2000 Australian Faunal Directory. World Wide Web electronic publication.
Bisby, F.A., M.A. Ruggiero, K.L. Wilson, M. Cachuela-Palacio, S.W. Kimani, Y.R. Roskov, A. Soulier-Perkins and J. van Hertum, 2005 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2005 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
Bradbury, M.G. and D.M. Cohen, 1958 An illustration and a new record of the North Pacific bathypelagic fish Macropinna microstoma. Stanford Ichthyol. Bull. 7(3): 57-59.
Brockmann, H.J., 1990 Mating behavior of horseshoe crabs, Limulus polyphemus. Behaviour 114(1-4):206-220.
Bruce, A.J., 1966 Nephrops sinensis sp.nov., a new species of lobster from South China Sea. Crustaceana 10:155-156 + plates 10-12.
Bullard, S.G. and R.B. Whitlatch, 2004 A guide to the larval and juvenile stages of common Long Island Sound ascidians and bryozoans. Connecticut Sea Grant College Program, Department of Marine Sciences, University of Connecticut, Groton CT 06340, U.S.A.
Cardigos, F., F. Tempera, S. Avila, J. Gonçalves, A. Colaço and R.S. Santos, 2006 Non-indigenous marine species of the Azores. Helgol Mar Res 60:160-169.
Castilla, J.C., M. Uribe, N. Bahamonde, M. Clarke, R. Desqueyroux-Faúndez, I. Kong, H. Moyano, N. Rozbaczylo, B. Santelices, C. Valdovinos and P. Zavala, 2005 Down under the southeastern Pacific: marine non-indigenous species in Chile. Biological Invasions 7:213-232.
Castro, P. and M.E. Huber, 2005 Marine biology. 452 p. ; col. ill. Boston, McGraw-Hill.
Chan, T.-Y. and H.-P. Yu, 1987 Metanephrops formosanus sp.nov., a new species of lobster (Decapoda, Nephropidae), from Taiwan. Crustaceana 52:172-186 + figure 1 + plate 1-2.
Christie, H., N.M. Jørgensen, K.M. Norderhaug and E. Waage-Nielsen, 2003 Species distribution and habitat exploitation of fauna associated with kelp (Laminaria hyperborea) along the Norwegian Coast. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 83(4):687-699.
Clarke, A. and N.M. Johnston, 2003 Antarctic marine benthic diversity. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 41:47-114.
Cohen, A., C. Mills, H. Berry, M. Woham and Bingha, 1998 A Rapid Assessment Survey of Non-indigenous Species in the Shallow Waters of Puget Sound. Report of the Puget Sound Expedition September 8-16, 1998. For the Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA; United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Lacey, WA (November 1998).
Cole, L. and G. Lambert, 2009 Tunicata (Urochordata) of the Gulf of Mexico. pp. 1209-1216 In Felder, D.L.; Camp, D.K. (eds.) Gulf of Mexico - Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas.
Cole, L.L., 1989 Catalog of tunicate type specimens in the United States National Museum Collection. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 487:i-12.
Collin, R., M.C. Díaz, J. Norenburg, R.M. Rocha, J.A. Sánchez, M. Schulze, A. Schwartz and A. Valdés, 2005 Photographic identification guide to some common marine invertebrates of Bocas Del Toro, Panama. Caribbean Journal of Science. 41(3):638-707.
Cusson, M., P. Archambault and A. Aitken, 2007 Biodiversity of benthic assemblages on the Arctic continental shelf: historical data form Canada. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 331:291-304.
da Rocha, R.M. and S.B. de Faria, 2005 Ascidians at Currais Islands, Paraña, Brazil: taxonomy and distribution. Biota Neotropica 5(2):1-20.
Darcy, G.H., 1983 Synopsis of biological data on the pigfish, Orthopristis chrysoptera (Pisces: Haemulidae). FAO Fish. Synop. (134); NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS Circ. (449).
De Broyer, C. and B. Danis (eds.), 2007 SCAR-MarBIN: The Antarctic Marine Biodiversity Information Network. [05/13/2007].
de Kluijver, M.J. and S.S. Ingalsuo, 2006 Tunicata: Macrobenthos of the North Sea. Zoological Museum, University of Amsterdam.
del Mundo, C.M., 2000 Philippine decapod crustacea. An illustrated handbook on the commercially important decapod crustacea of the Philippines. Fisheries Resources Evaluation and Environmental Services Division, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources. Quezon City, Philippines. 83 p.
deRivera, C.E., G.M. Ruiz, J.A. Crooks, K. Wasson, S.I. Lonhart, P. Fofonoff, B.P. Steves, S.S. Rumrill, M.S. Bracato, W.S. Pegau, D.A. Bulthius, R.K. Priesler, G.C. Schooch, E. Bowlby, A. De Vogelaere, M.K. Crawford and …, 2005 L. Takata, K. Larson, T. Huber, A.M. Leyman, E. Collinetti, T. Pasco, S. Shull, M. Anderson and S. Powell. Broad-scale nonindigenous species monitoring along the west coast in national marine sanctuaries and national estuarine research reserves. National Fish and Wildlife Foundation.
Drumm, D.T., K.P. Maslenikov, R. Van Syoc, J.W. Orr, R.R. Lauth, D.E. Stevenson and T.W. Pietsch, 2016 An annotated checklist of the marine macroinvertebrates of Alaska. NOAA Professional Paper NMFS 19, 289 p. doi:10.7755/PP.19
Durkin, M.K., 1980 The Saleniinae in time and space. p. 3-14. In M. Jangoux (ed.) Echinoderms: Present and Past. Proceedings of the European Colloquim on Echinoderms, Brussels, 3-8 September 1979.
Fox, R.S. and E.E. Ruppert, 1985 Shallow-water marine benthic invertebrates of South Carolina: Species identificattion, community composition and symbiotic association. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, SC (USA).
Garilao, N., 2014 Baltic Sea species list. Personal communication, 25 April 2014. Provided excel file.
Glagolev, S.M., L.A. Abramova and A.A. Vedenin, 2006 The list of invertebrate animal species of the Chupa Bay (Kandalaksha Gulf, White Sea). The materials of the White Sea Expedition of Moscow Southwest High School Vol. 6. http://herba, [Accessed 23/04/2007]
Glemarec, M. and C. Monniot, 1966 Repartition des Ascidies des fonds muebles de la cote sud de Bretagne. Cah. Biol. Mar. 7:343-366.
Goodbody, I., 2000 Diversity and distribution of ascidians (tunicata) in the Pelican Cays, Belize. Atoll Reseach Bulletin No. 480, p. 303-333.
Goodbody, I., 2003 The ascidian fauna of Port Royal, Jamaica I. Harbor and mangrove dwelling species. Bull. Mar. Sci. 73(2):457-476.
Goodbody, I., 2004 Diversity and distribution of ascidians (Tunicata) at Twin Cays, Belize. Atoll Research Bulletin 524:1-20.
Goodboy, I., 2004 Diversity and distribution of ascidians (tunicata) at Twin Cays, Belize. Atoll Reseach Bulletin No. 524. p. 1-19.
Gosner, K.L., 1978 A Field Guide to the Atlantic Seashore: Invertebrates and Seaweeds of the Atlantic Coast from the Bay of Fundy to Cape Hatteras (The Peterson Field Guide Series: 24). Houghton Miffin Company: Boston.
Grebmeier, J.M., L.W. Cooper, H.M. Feder and B.I. Sirenko, 2006 Ecosystem dynamics of the Pacific-influenced Northern Bering and Chukchi Seas in the Amerasian Arctic. Progress in Oceanography 71:331-361.
Guenther, J., C. Carl and L.M. Sunde, 2009 The effects of colour and copper on the settlement of the hydroid Ectopleura larynx on aquaculture nets in Norway. Aquaculture 292(3):252-255.
Gutt, J., D.K.A. Barnes, S.J. Lockhart and A. van de Putte, 2013 Antarctic macrobenthic communities: A compilation of circumpolar information. Nature Conservation 4:1-13.
Hansson, H.G., 1989 NEAT (North East Atlantic Taxa): South Scandinavian marine Chordata check-list. [accessed 05/04/2007]
Harbo, R.M., 1999 Whelks to Whales: Coastal Marine Life of the Pacific Northwest. Harbour Publishing: Madeira Park.
Harms, J., 1993 Check list of species (algae, invertebrates and vertebrates) found in the vicinity of the island of Helgoland (North Sea, German Bight) - a review of recent records. Helgoländer Meeresunters 47:1-34.
Hartmeyer, R., 1923 Ascidiacea, part I. Zugleich eine Ubersicht uber die Arktische und boreale Ascidienfauna auf tiergeographische Grundlage. Danish Ingolf-Exped. Copenhagen 2. 365pp.
Harvey-Clark, C., 1997 Eastern tidepool and reef: north-central Atlantic marinelife guide. Hancock House Publishers, 64pp.
Häussermann, V. and G. Försterra, 2009 Marine benthic fauna of Chilean Patagonia. Santiago, Nature in Focus. 1000 p.
Hayward, P.J. and J.S. Ryland (eds.), 1990 The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. 627 pp.
Herdman, W.A., 1912 The Tunicata of the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition, 1902-1904. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 48:305-320.
Hernández-Zanuy, A.C. and J.L. Carballo, 2001 Distribution and abundance of ascidian assemblages in Caribbean reef zones of the Golfo de Batabanó (Cuba). Coral Reefs 20:159-162.
Hibberd, T. and K. Moore, 2009 Field identification guide to Heard Island and McDonald Islands benthic invertebrates: a guide for scientific observers aboard fishing vessels. Kingston, Tas. : Australian Antarctic Division and Fisheries Research and Development Corporation (Australia), 152 p.
Howson, C.M. and B.E. Picton (eds.), 1997 The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Ulster Museum Publication, 276. The Ulster Museum: Belfast, UK. vi, 508 (+ cd-rom) pp.
Huntsman, A.G., 1912 Ascidians from the coasts of Canada. Toronto Trans. Canad. Inst. 9:111-148.
Jagerskiold, L.A., 1971 A Survey of the Marine Benthoic Macrofauna along the Swedish West Coast 1921-1938. Acta Regiae Societatis Scientiarum et Litterarum Gothoburgensis. Zoologica 6:1-146.
Kangas, M.I., S. Morrison, P. Unsworth, E. Lai, I. Wright and A. Thomson, 2006 Development of biodiversity and habitat monitoring systems for key trawl fisheries in Western Australia. Final FRDC Report - Project 2002/038.
Kott, P., 1969 Antarctic Ascidiacea. Vol. 13, Antarctic Research Series. American Geophysical Union, Publication 1725, Washington DC. 239 pp.
Kott, P., 2005 Catalogue of Tunicata in Australian Waters. Queensland Museum, Brisbane, Australia Department of the Environment and Heritage.
Kott, P. and I. Goodbody, 1982 The ascidians of Hong Kong. Proceedings of the International Marine Biological Workshop 1(1):503-554.
Lamb, A., D. Gibbs and C. Gibbs, 2011 Strait of Georgia biodiversity in relation to bull kelp abundance. Pacific Fisheries Resource Conservation Council, 111p.
Lambert, C.C. and G. Lambert, 2003 Persistence and differential distribution of nonindigenous ascidians in harbors of the Southern California Bight. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 259:145-161.
Lambert, C.C. and G. Lambert, 1998 Non-indigenous ascidians in southern California harbours and marinas. Mar. Biol. 130:675-688.
Lambert, G., 2003 New records of ascidians from the NE Pacific: a new species of trididemnum, range extension and redescription of Aplidiopsis pannosum (Ritter, 1899) including its larva, and several non-indigenous species. Zoosystema 25(4):665-679.
Lambert, G., 1993 Three new species of stolidobranch ascidians (Chordata: Ascidiacea) from the California continental shelf. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 48(4):109-118.
Lambert, G. and K. Sanamyan, 2001 Distaplia alaskensis sp.nov. (Ascidiacea, Aplousobranchia) and other new ascidian records from south-central Alaska, with a redescription of Ascidia columbiana (Huntsman, 1912). Can. J. Zool. 79:1766-1781.
Lamerato, A., 2001 Limulus polyphemus. Animal Diversity Web (accessed 9-12-2005).
Leewis, R., 2002 Flora en fauna van de zee [Marine flora and fauna]. Veldgids, 16. KNNV Uitgeverij: Utrecht, The Netherlands. 320 pp.
Macdonald, T.A., B.J. Burd, V.I. Macdonald and A. van Roodselaar, 2010 Taxonomic and feeding guild classification for the marine benthic macroinvertebrates of the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2874:62p.
Macpherson, E., 1990 Crustacea Decapoda: on a collection of Nephropidae from the Indian Ocean and Western Pacific. Résultats des campagnes Musorstom. Vol. 6. Mémoires du Muséum National d' Historie Naturelle (Paris, Zoologie) 145:289-329 + figures 1-17.
MarBEF, 2006 MarBEF Data System.[accessed June 26, 2006]
Marine Invader Database (Marine ID), 2008 Marine Invader Database., 2050
Markowski, S., 1962 Faunistic and ecological investigations in Cavendish Dock, Barrow-In-Furness. The Journal of Animal Ecology 31(1):43-51.
Millar, R.H., 1962 Further descriptions of South African ascidians. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 46(7):113-221.
Millar, R.H., 1982 The marine fauna of New Zealand: Ascidiacea. New Zealand Oceanographic Institute Memoir 85:1-117.
Millar, R.H., 1975 Ascidians from the Indo-West Pacific region in the zoological museum, Copenhagen (Tunicata, Ascidiacea). Steenstrupia 3(20):205-336.
Millar, R.H., 1958 Some ascidians from Brazil. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 1(13):497-514.
Millar, R.H., 1988 Ascidians collected during the International Indian Ocean Expedition. J. Nat. Hist. 22:823-848.
Millar, R.H., 1962 Some ascidians from the Caribbean. Natuurwet. Stud. Suriname (26):61-77.
Millar, R.H., 1965 Ascidians from the tropical coast of West Africa. Atlantide Rep 8:247-255.
Millar, R.H., 1966 Port Philip Survey 1957-1963. Ascidiacea. Mem. Natn. Mus. Vict. (27):357-384.
Millar, R.H., 1959 Ascidiacea. Galathea Report: Scientific Results of the Danish Deep-Sea Expedition Round the World 1950-52 1:189-210.
Millar, R.H., 1970 Ascidians, including specimens from the deep sea, collected by the R. V. 'Verna' and now in the American Museum of Natural History. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 49:99-159.
Miller, D.J. and E.E. Ball, 2005 Animal evolution: the enigmatic phylum Placozoa revisited. Current Biology 15(1):26-28.
Minchin, D., 2007 A checklist of alien and cryptogenic aquatic species in Ireland. Aquatic Invasions 2(4):341-366.
Monniot, C and F. Monniot, 1983 Ascidies Antarctiques et Subantarctiques: Morphologie et Biogéographie. Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris A(Zoologie)125:1-168, 27 figs., 7 pls.
Monniot, C., 1978 Ascidies Phlebobranches et Stolidobranches du sud de l'Ocean Indien. Ann. Inst. Oceanogr., Paris 54(2):171-224.
Monniot, C., 1997 Tuniciers abyssaux de l'Atlantique oriental tropical récoltés par les campagnes EUMELI. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 38:19-27.
Monniot, C., 1994 Quelques ascidies récoltées par le M. S. << Marion-Dufresne>> (Campagne Jasus, Réunion et Brésil). Vie Milieu 44(3-4):229-242.
Monniot, C., 1989 Ascidies de Nouvelle-Calédonie. VI : Pyuridae et Molgulidae. Bulletin du Muséum national d'histoire naturelle. Section A, Zoologie, biologie et écologie animales 11(3):475-507.
Monniot, C., 2002 Stolidobranch ascidians from the tropical western Indian Ocean. Zooligical Journal of the Linnean 135:65-120.
Monniot, C., 1973 Ascidies Phlébobranches et Stolidobranches des iles Kerguelen récoltées. pp. 59-74 In Grua, P. 1973. Invertébrés de l'infralittoral Rocheux dans l'Archipel de Kerguelen. Comité National Français des Recherches Antarctiques 2(32):1-74.
Monniot, C. and F. Monniot, 1975 Abyssal tunicates: an ecological paradox. Ann. Inst. Océanogr 51(1):99-129.
Monniot, C. and F. Monniot, 1994 Ascidians collected in the Weddell Sea by the RV "Polarstern" (EPOS cruise leg 3). Bulletin of Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle Series 16, Section A(1):13-37.
Monniot, C. and F. Monniot, 1973 Ascidies des iles Kerguelen récoltées par P.M. Arnaud. Tethys 5(4):715-734.
Monniot, C. and F. Monniot, 1991 Tunicata: peuplements d'ascidies profondes en Nouvelle-Caledonie. Diversite des strategies adaptatives. Memoires du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle Serie A Zoologie 151:357-448.
Monniot, C. and F. Monniot, 1985 Tuniciers profonds de l'océan Indien: campagnes SAFARI du << Marion Dufrense>>. Bulletin of National d'Histoire Naturelle Series 7, Section A(2):279-308.
Monniot, C. and F. Monniot, 1994 Additions to the inventory of eastern tropical Atlantic ascidians; arrival of cosmopolitan species. Bull. Mar. Sci. 54(1):71-93.
Monniot, C. and F. Monniot, 1987 Abundance and distribution of tunicates on the northern continental slope of the Gulf of Mexico. Bull. Mar. Sci. 41(1):36-44.
Monniot, C. and F. Monniot, 1976 Ascidies de la Côte du Mozambique. [Ascidians from the Mozambique coast.]. Rev. Zool. Afr. (1974) 90(2):357-392.
Monniot, C. and F. Monniot, 1992 Ascidies des seamounts lusitaniens (campagne Seamount I). Bulletin of Natural History A(3-4):591-603.
Monniot, C. and F. Monniot, 1987 Les ascidies de Polynesie francaise. Memoires du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle Serie A Zoologie 136:1-156.
Monniot, C. and F. Monniot, 1982 Biology of the Antarctic seas 10. some Antarctic deep-sea tunicates in the smithsonian collections. Antarctic Research Series 32(Paper 4):95-130.
Monniot, F., 1971 Les ascidies des grandes profondeurs récoltées par les navires Atlantis 2 et Chain: 3e note. Cah. Biol. Mar. 12(4):457-469.
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Monniot, F. and C. Monniot, 2003 Asicidies de la pente externe et bathyales de l'ouest Pacifique. Zoosystema 25(4):681-749.
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