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References used for species in the Family Didemnidae
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[ n = 234 ] 
Ananthan, G, P. Sivaperumal and S. Mohamed Hussain, 2011 Cytotoxicity of the crude extracts of Marine ascidians (Tunicata: Ascidiacea) from Tuticorin, Southeast coast of India. Arch Appl Sci Res 3(2):139-142.
Arnaud, P.M., 1974 Contribution à la bionomie marine benthique des régions antarctiques et subantarctiques. Téthys 6(3):467-653.
Atlas of Living Australia, 2015 Didemnum albopunctatum.;jsessionid=5D3256A95CB6B4D8163BF0740E395D62 [Accessed 3/4/2015].
Atlas of Living Australia, 2015 Didemnum arancium.;jsessionid=01C03F13C458D5D729390E3800999097 [Accessed 2/2/2015].
Atlas of Living Australia, 2015 Didemnum arancium. [Accessed 2/2/2015].
Atlas of Living Australia, 2015 Didemnum fragile.;jsessionid=56C0B9F3ACB7FFD3546D026555A0DB46 [Accessed 2/10/2015].
Atlas of Living Australia, 2015 Diplosoma translucidum.;jsessionid=AF806D136F7CBA15B475CF4BE4BF9C5F [Accessed 3/4/2015].
Atlas of Living Australia, 2015 Leptoclinides aciculus. [Accessed 3/5/2015].
Atlas of Living Australia, 2015 Leptoclinides aciculus. [Accessed 3/5/2015].
Atlas of Living Australia, 2015 Leptoclinides rufus.;jsessionid=18C7108568C3576D15FE74B359ADC3D9 [Accessed 3/4/2015].
Atlas of Living Australia, 2015 Lissoclinum polyorchis.;jsessionid=C8852B97B9BA2A59396FF01DC86B8123 [Accessed 3/4/2015].
Atlas of Living Australia, 2015 Occurrence of Lissoclinum tuheiavae.;jsessionid=41CA61382C7F0A665B90213F6EB69844 [Accessed 1/26/2015].
Atlas of Living Australia, 2015 Polysyncraton rugosum.;jsessionid=3EF2F3310B22373954998F1B3F5C093E [Accessed 3/5/2015].
Australian Biological Resources Study, 2000 Australian Faunal Directory. World Wide Web electronic publication.
Baker, J., 2011 Conservation status of marine invertebrates in the Northern and Yorke NRM Region-a review. Report for Northern and Yorke Natural Resources Management Board.
Bartley, D.M. (comp./ed.), 2006 DIAS. Introduced species in fisheries and aquaculture: information for responsible use and control (CD-ROM). Rome, FAO.
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, 2000 Marine Invertebrates of the Hawaiian Islands - Summary statistics for major taxa.
Berrill, N.J., 1947 The ascidians Trididemnum alleni and Distaplia garstangi, new species from the Plymouth area. Journal of the Marine Biological Association 26:609-615.
Bisby, F.A., M.A. Ruggiero, K.L. Wilson, M. Cachuela-Palacio, S.W. Kimani, Y.R. Roskov, A. Soulier-Perkins and J. van Hertum, 2005 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2005 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly and J. van Hertum (eds.), 2007 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
Bocas del Toro: Species Database, 2015 Didemnum psammatode (Sluiter, 1895). Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. [Accessed 6/11/2015].
Bradbury, M.G. and D.M. Cohen, 1958 An illustration and a new record of the North Pacific bathypelagic fish Macropinna microstoma. Stanford Ichthyol. Bull. 7(3): 57-59.
Branch, G.M., C.L. Griffiths, M.L. Branch and L. Beckley, 2005 Two oceans: a guide to marine life in southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town, 360 p.
Brewin, B.L., 1956 Ascidians from the Chatham Islands and the Chatham Rise. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 84(1):121-137.
Brockmann, H.J., 1990 Mating behavior of horseshoe crabs, Limulus polyphemus. Behaviour 114(1-4):206-220.
Bruce, J.R., J.S. Colman and N.S. Jones, 1963 Marine fauna of the Isle of Man. Memoir No. 36. Liverpool University Press, Liverpool.
Bullard, S.G. and R.B. Whitlatch, 2004 A guide to the larval and juvenile stages of common Long Island Sound ascidians and bryozoans. Connecticut Sea Grant College Program, Department of Marine Sciences, University of Connecticut, Groton CT 06340, U.S.A.
Castro, P. and M.E. Huber, 2005 Marine biology. 452 p. ; col. ill. Boston, McGraw-Hill.
Chiriboga, A., D. Ruiz, N. Tirado-Sanchez and S. Banks, 2016 CDF Checklist of Galapagos animals with a notochord - FCD Lista de especies de Animales con un notochord Galápagos. In Bungartz, F.; Herrera, H.; Jaramillo, P.; Tirado, N.; Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G.; Ruiz, D.; Guézou, A.; Ziemmeck, F. (eds) Charles Darwin Foundation Galapagos Species Checklist - Lista de Especies de Galápagos de la Fundación Charles Darwin. Charles Darwin Foundation / Fundación Charles Darwin, Puerto Ayora, Galapagos.
Clarke, A. and N.M. Johnston, 2003 Antarctic marine benthic diversity. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 41:47-114.
Cole, L. and G. Lambert, 2009 Tunicata (Urochordata) of the Gulf of Mexico. pp. 1209-1216 In Felder, D.L.; Camp, D.K. (eds.) Gulf of Mexico - Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas.
Collin, R., M.C. Díaz, J. Norenburg, R.M. Rocha, J.A. Sánchez, M. Schulze, A. Schwartz and A. Valdés, 2005 Photographic identification guide to some common marine invertebrates of Bocas Del Toro, Panama. Caribbean Journal of Science. 41(3):638-707.
Cusson, M., P. Archambault and A. Aitken, 2007 Biodiversity of benthic assemblages on the Arctic continental shelf: historical data form Canada. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 331:291-304.
da Rocha, R.M. and F. Monniot, 1995 Taxonomic and ecological notes on some Didemnum species (Ascidiacea, Didemnidae) from Sao Sebastiao Channel, southeastern Brazil. Revista Brasiliera de Biologia 55(4):639-649.
Da Rocha, R.M. and F. Monniot, 1993 Didemnum rodriguesi sp. nov., a new didemnid tunicate common to southern Brazil and New Caledonia. Annales de l'Institut oceanographique, Paris. Nouvelle serie. Paris 69(2):261-265.
da Rocha, R.M. and S.B. de Faria, 2005 Ascidians at Currais Islands, Paraña, Brazil: taxonomy and distribution. Biota Neotropica 5(2):1-20.
Darcy, G.H., 1983 Synopsis of biological data on the pigfish, Orthopristis chrysoptera (Pisces: Haemulidae). FAO Fish. Synop. (134); NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS Circ. (449).
Daumezon, G., 1909 Contribution à l'étude des Synascidies du Golfe de Marseille. Bul. Sci. France-Belgique Paris 42:269-432.
de Faria, S.B., 2006 Padrão de distribuição de Ascidiacea (Tunicata) no Atlântico e regiões polares adjacentes: um enfoque através da análise parcimoniosa de endemicidade (PAE). Universidade Federal do Paraná MS Thesis.
de Kluijver, M.J. and S.S. Ingalsuo, 2006 Tunicata: Macrobenthos of the North Sea. Zoological Museum, University of Amsterdam.
DeFelice, R.C., L.G. Eldredge and J. Carlton, 2002 Guidebook of Introduced Marine Species of Hawai'i. Bishop Museum and University of Hawaii;
DeFelice, R.C., L.G. Eldredge and J.T. Carlton, 2001 Nonindigenous marine invertebrates. p. B-i-B-60. In Eldredge, G.L. and C.M. Smith. A Guidebook of Marine Species in Hawaii. Bishop Museum Technical Report 21.
del Mundo, C.M., 2000 Philippine decapod crustacea. An illustrated handbook on the commercially important decapod crustacea of the Philippines. Fisheries Resources Evaluation and Environmental Services Division, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources. Quezon City, Philippines. 83 p.
Denisenko, N.V., S.G. Denisenko, K.K. Lehtonen, A.-B. Andersin and H.R. Sandler, 2007 Zoobenthos of the Cheshskaya Bay (southeastern Barents Sea): spatial distribution and community structure in relation to environmental factors. Polar Biology 30:735-746.
deRivera, C.E., G.M. Ruiz, J.A. Crooks, K. Wasson, S.I. Lonhart, P. Fofonoff, B.P. Steves, S.S. Rumrill, M.S. Bracato, W.S. Pegau, D.A. Bulthius, R.K. Priesler, G.C. Schooch, E. Bowlby, A. De Vogelaere, M.K. Crawford and …, 2005 L. Takata, K. Larson, T. Huber, A.M. Leyman, E. Collinetti, T. Pasco, S. Shull, M. Anderson and S. Powell. Broad-scale nonindigenous species monitoring along the west coast in national marine sanctuaries and national estuarine research reserves. National Fish and Wildlife Foundation.
Dias, G.M. and S. Rodrigues, 2004 Didemnum tetrahedrum sp. nov., a new Didemnum (Tunicata: Ascidiacea) species from south-eastern Brazil. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 84:1227-1228.
Drumm, D.T., K.P. Maslenikov, R. Van Syoc, J.W. Orr, R.R. Lauth, D.E. Stevenson and T.W. Pietsch, 2016 An annotated checklist of the marine macroinvertebrates of Alaska. NOAA Professional Paper NMFS 19, 289 p. doi:10.7755/PP.19
Ehlinger, G., 2001 Species account: Limulus polyphemus. Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory. Smithsonian Marine Station at Ft. Pierce. Http:// (accessed 8-12-2005)
Elahi, R., 2012 Diversity and structure of subtidal rock walls in the Salish Sea: the roles of grazing, oceanography, and long-term change. Biology, Doctor of Philosophy, University of Washington, 151pp.
Eldredge, L.G., 1966 Taxonomic review of Indo-Pacific Didemnid Ascidians and descriptions of twenty-three central Pacific species. Journal of the College of Guam 2(2):160-261.
Faulkner, D.J., D.J. Newman and G.M. Cragg, 2004 Investigations of the marine flora and fauna of the islands of Palau. Nat. Prod. Rep. 21:50-76.
Garilao, N., 2014 Baltic Sea species list. Personal communication, 25 April 2014. Provided excel file.
GBIF, 2015 Trididemnum paracyclops. [Accessed 6/11/2015].
George, J.D., 2012 Reef-associated macroinvertebrates of the SE Gulf. p. 253-308 In Riegl, B.M.; Purkis, S.J. (eds) 2012. Coral Reefs of the Gulf: adaptation to climatic extremes. Springer Science.
Gischler, E. and R.N. Ginsburg, 1996 Cavity dwellers (coelobites) under coral rubble in southern Belize barrier and atoll reefs. Bull. Mar. Sci. 58(2):570-589.
Glagolev, S.M., L.A. Abramova and A.A. Vedenin, 2006 The list of invertebrate animal species of the Chupa Bay (Kandalaksha Gulf, White Sea). The materials of the White Sea Expedition of Moscow Southwest High School Vol. 6. http://herba, [Accessed 23/04/2007]
Goodbody, I., 2000 Diversity and distribution of ascidians (tunicata) in the Pelican Cays, Belize. Atoll Reseach Bulletin No. 480, p. 303-333.
Goodbody, I., 2003 The ascidian fauna of Port Royal, Jamaica I. Harbor and mangrove dwelling species. Bull. Mar. Sci. 73(2):457-476.
Goodbody, I., 2004 Diversity and distribution of ascidians (Tunicata) at Twin Cays, Belize. Atoll Research Bulletin 524:1-20.
Goodboy, I., 2004 Diversity and distribution of ascidians (tunicata) at Twin Cays, Belize. Atoll Reseach Bulletin No. 524. p. 1-19.
Gosner, K.L., 1978 A Field Guide to the Atlantic Seashore: Invertebrates and Seaweeds of the Atlantic Coast from the Bay of Fundy to Cape Hatteras (The Peterson Field Guide Series: 24). Houghton Miffin Company: Boston.
Gotshall, D.W., 2005 Guide to marine invertebrates: Alaska to Baja California, 2nd ed. (revised). Sea Challengers. 117 p.
Gröner, F., M. Lenz, M. Wahl and S.R. Jenkins, 2011 Stress resistance in two colonial ascidians from the Irish Sea: the recent invader Didemnum vexillum is more tolerant to low salinity than the cosmopolitan Diplosoma listerianum. Journanl of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 409(2011):48-52.
Hansson, H.G., 1989 NEAT (North East Atlantic Taxa): South Scandinavian marine Chordata check-list. [accessed 05/04/2007]
Harms, J., 1993 Check list of species (algae, invertebrates and vertebrates) found in the vicinity of the island of Helgoland (North Sea, German Bight) - a review of recent records. Helgoländer Meeresunters 47:1-34.
Häussermann, V. and G. Försterra, 2009 Marine benthic fauna of Chilean Patagonia. Santiago, Nature in Focus. 1000 p.
Hayward, P.J. and J.S. Ryland (eds.), 1990 The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. 627 pp.
Hernández-Zanuy, A.C. and J.L. Carballo, 2001 Distribution and abundance of ascidian assemblages in Caribbean reef zones of the Golfo de Batabanó (Cuba). Coral Reefs 20:159-162.
Hirose, E. and A.T. Oka, 2008 A new species of photosymbiotic ascidian from the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, with remarks on the stability of stigma number in photosymbiotic Diplosoma species. Zoological Science 25:1261-1267.
Hirose, E., H. Uchida and A. Murakami, 2009 Ultrastructural and microspectrophotometric characterization of multiple species of cyanobacterial photoysmbionts coexisting in the colonial ascidian Trididemnum clinides (Tunicata, Ascidiacea, Didemnidae). Eur. J. Phycol. 44(3):365-375.
Hogg, O.T., D.K.A. Barnes and H.J. Griffiths, 2011 Highly diverse, poorly studied and uniquely threatened by climate change: an assessment of marine biodiversity on South Georgia's continental shelf. PLoS ONE 6(5):e19795.
Hong, S.Y., K.Y. Park, C.W. Park, C.H. Han, H.L. Suh, S.G. Yun, C.B. Song, S.G. Jo, H.S. Lim, Y.S. Kang, D.J. Kim, C.W. Ma, M.H. Son, H.K. Cha, K.B. Kim, S.D. Choi, K.Y. Park, C.W. Oh, D.N. Kim, H.S. Shon, J.N. Kim et al., 2006 Marine invertebrates in Korean coasts. Republic of Korea, Academy Publishing Company, Inc. 479 p.
Hussain, S.M., G. Ananthan and P. Sivaperumal, 2011 Exploration of cytotoxic potential from marine ascidians Trididemnum clinides and Trididemnum savignii. Journal of Pharmacy Research 4(7):2032-2033.
Inglis, G., N. Gust, M. Kospartov and L. Peacock, 2008 Milford Sound: first baseline survey for non-indigenous marine species (Research Project ZBS2005/19). MAF Biosecurity New Zealand Technical Paper No: 2008/01.
Jaccarini, V. and E. Martens (eds.), 1992 The ecology of mangrove related ecosystems. Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Mombasa, Kenya, 24-30 September 1990. Hydrobiologia 247:1-265.
Jagerskiold, L.A., 1971 A Survey of the Marine Benthoic Macrofauna along the Swedish West Coast 1921-1938. Acta Regiae Societatis Scientiarum et Litterarum Gothoburgensis. Zoologica 6:1-146.
Kalk, M., 1958 The fauna of the intertidal rocks at Inhaca Island, Delagoa Bay. Annals of the Natal Museum 14:189-242.
Kangas, M.I., S. Morrison, P. Unsworth, E. Lai, I. Wright and A. Thomson, 2006 Development of biodiversity and habitat monitoring systems for key trawl fisheries in Western Australia: Final FRDC Report - Project 2002/038. Fisheries Research Report No. 160, Department of Fisheries, Western Australia, 334p.
Kennedy, M.K., L. Van Guelpen, G. Pohle and L. Bajona (eds.), 2010 Canadian Register of Marine Species (CaRMs). World Wide Web electronic publication., version 1.0/2010.
Kott, P., 2005 Catalogue of Tunicata in Australian Waters. Queensland Museum, Brisbane, Australia Department of the Environment and Heritage.
Kott, P., 2004 New and little-known species of Didemnidae (Ascidiacea, Tunicata) from Australia (part 2). Journal of Natural History 38:2455-2526.
Kott, P., 1962 Ascidians of Australia. III. Aplousobranchiata Lahille : Didemidae Giard. Inst. J. mar. freshw. Sci. 13:265-334.
Kott, P., 2004 New and little-known species of Didemnidae (Ascidiacea, Tunicata) from Australia (part 1). Journal of Natural History 38:731-774.
Kott, P., 1969 Antarctic Ascidiacea. Vol. 13, Antarctic Research Series. American Geophysical Union, Publication 1725, Washington DC. 239 pp.
Kott, P., 2002 A complex didemnid ascidian from Whangamata, New Zealand. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 82:625-628.
Kott, P., 2004 A new species of Didemnum (Ascidiacea, Tunicata) from the Atlantic coast of North America. Zootaxa 732:1-10.
Kott, P., 1980 Algal-bearing didemnid ascidians in the Indo-west-Pacific. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 20(1):1-47.
Kott, P., 2005 Ascidians from the Solomon Islands. Beagle 21:53-66.
Kott, P. and I. Goodbody, 1982 The ascidians of Hong Kong. Proceedings of the International Marine Biological Workshop 1(1):503-554.
Lafargue, F., 1968 Peuplements sessiles de l'Archipel des Glénan. II. Les Didemnidae. Systématique. Écologie. Vie Milieu 19:353-446.
Lafargue, F., 1983 Inventaire des ascidies Didemnidae de Roscoff (Tuniciers). Cah. Biol. Mar. 24(4):377-381.
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Lambert, G., 2019 Fouling ascidians (Chordata: Ascidiacea) of the Galápagos: Santa Cruz and Baltra Islands. Aquatic Invasions 14:132-149
Lambert, G., 2003 New records of ascidians from the NE Pacific: a new species of trididemnum, range extension and redescription of Aplidiopsis pannosum (Ritter, 1899) including its larva, and several non-indigenous species. Zoosystema 25(4):665-679.
Lamerato, A., 2001 Limulus polyphemus. Animal Diversity Web (accessed 9-12-2005).
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Moorea Biocode Project, 2015 Didemnum mutabile. [Accessed 1/23/2015].
Moorea Biocode Project, 2015 Didemnum mutabile. [Accessed 1/23/2015].
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Moorea Biocode Project, 2015 Polysyncraton pontoniae. [Accessed 1/26/2015].
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