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References used for species in the Family Cardiidae
( cockles )
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[ n = 461 ] 
Sejr, M.K., M.E. Blicher and S. Rysgaard, 2009 Sea ice cover affects inter-annual and geographic variation in growth of the Arctic cockle Clinocardium ciliatum (Bivalvia) in Greenland. Marine Ecology Progress Series 389:149-158.
Abbott, R. T. and P. A. Morris, 2001 A field guide to shells: Atlantic and Gulf Coasts and the West Indies. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Abbott, R.T., 1991 Seashells of South East Asia. Graham Bash, Singapore. 145 p.
Adjeroud, M., S. Andréfouët and C. Payri, 2001 Mass mortality of macrobenthic communities in the lagoon of Hikueru atoll (French Polynesia). Coral Reefs 19:287-291.
Adulyanukosol, K., 1997 Growth of Giant Clam Tridacna squamosa Lamarck under laboratory and natural conditions. Phuket Marine Biological Center Special Publication 17(1):269-274.
Agombar, J.S., H.L. Dugdale and N.J. Hawkswell, 2003 Species list and relative abundance of marine molluscs collected on Aride Island beach between March 2001 and February 2002. Phelsuma 11:29-38.
Al-Khayat, J.A., 1997 The marine Mollusca of the Qatari waters, Arabian Gulf. Qatar Univ. Sci. J. 17(2):479-491.
Al-Khayat, J.A. and M.A. Al-Ansi, 2008 Ecological features of oyster beds distribution in Qatari waters, Arabian Gulf. Asian Journal of Scientific Research 1(6):544-561.
Al-Yamani, F.Y., V. Skryabin, N. Boltachova, N. Revkov, M. Makarov, V. Grinstov and E. Kolesnikova, 2012 Illustrated Atlas on the Zoobenthos of Kuwait. Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research.
Allan, G.R. and G.S. Stone, 2005 Rapid Assessment Survey of Tsunami-affected Reefs of Thailand. Final technical Report 02-05: 124 p.
Allen, G.R. and S.A. McKenna, 2001 A marine Rapid Assessment of the Togean and Banggai Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 20, Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Alyakrinskaya, I.O., 2004 Functional Significance and Weight Properties of the Shell in Some Mollusks. Biology Bulletin. 32(4):397-418.
Ambrose, R.F., 1984 Food preferences, prey availability, and the diet of Octopus bimaculatus Verrill. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 77:29-44.
Ambrose, W.G., M.L. Carroll, M. Greenacre, S.R. Thorrold and K.W. McMahon, 2006 Variation in Serripes groenlandicus (Bivalvia) growth in a Norwegian high‐Arctic fjord: evidence for local‐and large‐scale climatic forcing. Global Change Biology 12(9):1595-1607.
Anajjar, E.M., J.F. Chiffoleau, H. Bergayou, A. Moukrim, T. Burgeot and M. Cheggour, 2008 Monitoring of trace metal contamination in the souss estuary (South Morocco) using the clams Cerastoderma edule and Scrobicularia plana. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 80(3):283-288.
Anam, R. and E. Mostarda, 2012 Field identification guide to the living marine resources of Kenya. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes, Rome: FAO, 357 p.
André, C. and R. Rosenberg, 1991 Adult-larval interactions in the suspension-feeding bivalves Cerastoderma edule and Mya arenaria. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 71(3):227-234.
Andréfouët, S., K. Friedman, A. Gilbert and G. Remoissenet, 2009 A comparison of two surveys of invertebrates at Pacific Ocean islands: the giant clam at Raivavae Island, Australes Archipelago, French Polynesia. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 66(9):1825-1836.
Andréfouët, S., S. Van Wynsberge, C. Fauvelot, A.W. Bruckner and G. Remoissenet, 2014 Significance of new records of Tridacna squamosa Lamarck, 1819, in the Tuamotu and Gambier Archipelagos (French Polynesia). Molluscan Research 34(4):277-284.
ANS, Academy of Natural Sciences, 2007 Academy of Natural Sciences Malacology Database. Accessed through GBIF data portal, 13/09/2007.
Antoniadou, C., Y. Krestenitis and C. Chintiroglou, 2004 Structure of the "amphioxus sand" community in Thermaikos bay (Eastern Mediterranean). Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 13(11a):1122-1128.
Apte, D., S. Dutta and I. Babu, 2010 Monitoring densities of the giant clam Tridacna maxima in the Lakshadweep Archipelago. Marine Biodiversity Records. 3, e78.
Atkinson, E.G. and J.W. Wacasey, 1976 Caloric values of zoobenthos and phytobenthos from the Canadian Arctic. Department of the Environment, Fishieries and Marine Service, Technical Report 632:1-23.
Azeda, C., E. Sá, G. Silva, J.P. Medeiros, M.J. Tavares, P.R. de Almeida, I. Metelo and M.J. Costa, 2013 Preliminary results of biological monitoring using benthic macroinfauna of the discharge areas of Lisbon drainage basins in Tagus estuary after new developments in sanitation infrastructures. Journal of Sea Research 83:163-172.
Azevedo, C. and E. U. Canning, 1987 Ultrastructure of a microsporidian hyperparasite, Unikaryon legeri (Microsporida), of trematode larvae. The Journal of parasitology 73(1):214-223.
Backeljau, T., De Meyer, M. Thierry, L. Janssens, H. Liesse and R. Proesmans, 1986 The bivalve molluscs of Varangerfjorden, northern Norway. Fauna norv. Ser. A 7:1-9.
Baillie, J. and B. Groombridge, 1996 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK, 448 p.
Baillie, J. and B. Groombridge (eds.), 1996 1996 IUCN red list of threatened animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 378 p.
Bakır, B.B., B. Öztürk, A. Doğan and M. & Önen, 2012 Mollusc fauna of Iskenderun Bay with a checklist of the region. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 12(1):171-184.
Barnes, D.K.A., A. Corrie, M. Whittington, M.A. Carvalho and F. Gell, 1998 Coastal shellfish resource use in the Quirimba Archipelago, Mozambique. Journal of Shellfish Research 17(1):51-58.
Bartley, D.M. (comp./ed.), 2006 Introduced species in fisheries and aquaculture: information for responsible use and control (CD-ROM). Rome, FAO.
Basker, J.R., 1991 Giant clams in the Maldives: a stock assessment and study of their potential for culture. Bay of Bengal Program Fisheries Resource BOP/WP/72.
Batoy, C.B., 2050 Survey of the marine macrobenthic invertebrate fauna of coastal waters in selected places in Leyte and vicinity. Department of Plant Protection, Visayas State College of Agricultre, ViSCA, Baybay, Leyte 7127. pp 1-284.
Bechtol, W.R., 2005 A bottom trawl survey for crabs and groundfish in the Southern Kamishak Bay, and Barren Islands Districts of the Cook Inlet Management Area, 20-25 Jue and 10-17 July 2000. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fishery Data Series No. 05-40, Anchorage.
Bego, F., T. Bino and G. Jorgo, 1998 Faunistic values of the delta of Drini River. ECAT-Tirana.
Belhabib, D., D. Pauly, S. Harper and D. Zeller, 2012 Marine fisheries catches in West Africa, 1950-2010, part I. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 20 (3).
Bensaâd-Bendjedid, L., S. Belhaoues, A. Kerdoussi, N. Djebbari, M. Tahri and M. Bensouilah, 2018 Age structure, growth and shell form of Cerastoderma glaucum (Bivalvia: Cardiidae) from El Mellah lagoon, Algeria. AACL Bioflux 11(3):894-904.
Beqiraj, S., L. Kashta, M. Kuci, D. Kasemi, X. Mato and A. Gace, 2008 Benthic macrofauna of Posidonia oceanica meadows in the Albanian coast. Natura Montenegrina 7(2): 55-69.
Bernard, F.R., 1979 Bivalve mollusks of the western Beaufort Sea. Contributions in Science (Los Angeles) 313:1-80.
Bernard, F.R. and D.J. Noakes, 1990 Pumping rates, water pressures, and oxygen use in eight species of marine bivalve molluscs from British Columbia. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 47:1302-1306.
Bernard, F.R., S.M. McKinnell and G.S. Jamieson, 1991 Distribution and zoogeography of the Bivalvia of the Eastern Pacific Ocean. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 112:60 pp.
Bernard, F.R., Y.Y. Cai and B. Morton, 1993 Catalogue of the living marine bivalve molluscs of China. Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong. 121 p.
Berry, P.F. and P.E. Playford, 1997 Biology of modern Fragum erugatum (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Cardiidae) in relation of the Hamelin Coquina, Shark bay, Western Australia. Mar. Freshwat. Res. 48:415-420.
Berthou, P., J.M. Poutiers, P. Goulletquer and J.C. Dao, 2009 Shelled molluscs. In Fisheries and Aquaculture, from Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO, Eolss Publishers, Oxford, UK, [].
Bieler, R. and P.M. Mikkelsen, 2004 Marine bivalves of the Florida Keys: A qualitative faunal analysis based on original collections, museum holdings and literature data. Malacologia 46(2):503-544.
BIOTIC, 2016 BIOTIC Species Information for Acanthocardia echinata. BIOTIC - Biological Traits Information Catalogue. [Accessed 3/17/2016].
Birkeland, C. and H. Manner, 1989 Resource survey of Ngerukewid Islands Wildlife Preserve, Republic of Palau. A report to the government of Palau, the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, World Wildlife Fund, and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, 202p.
Birkeland, C., R.H. Randall, A.L. Green, B.D. Smith and S. Wilkins, 2003 Changes in the coral reef communities of Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary and Tutuila Island (American Samoa), 1982-1995. Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Science Series.
Birkely, S.-R. and B. Gulliksen, 2003 Feeding ecology in five shrimp species (Decapoda: Caridea) from an Arctic Fjord (Isfjorden, Svalbard), with emphasis on Sclerocrangon boreas (Phipps, 1774). Crustaceana 76(6):699-715.
Bisby, F.A., M.A. Ruggiero, K.L. Wilson, M. Cachuela-Palacio, S.W. Kimani, Y.R. Roskov, A. Soulier-Perkins and J. van Hertum, 2005 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2005 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly and J. van Hertum (eds.), 2007 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
BISHOGAI Shells Database, 2015 Acanthocardia spinosa (Solander, 1786). [Accessed 11/11/2015].
Black, R., A.I. Robertson, C.H. Peterson and N.M. Peterson, 1990 Fishes and benthos of near-shore seagrass and sandflat habitats at Monkey Mia Shark Bay, Western Australia. pp245-261 In Berry PF, Bradshaw SD, Wilson BR, editors. Research in Shark Bay: Report of the France-Australe Biocentenary Expedition Committee, Perth: Western Australia Museum.
Blanchard, A.L., C.L. Parris, A.L. Knowlton and N.R. Wade, 2013 Benthic ecology of the northeastern Chukchi Sea. Part II. Spatial variation of megafaunal community structure, 2009-2010. Cotinental Shelf Research 67:67-76.
Bodoy, A., 1984 Assessment of human impact on giant clams (Tridacna maxima) near Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Proc. Symp. Coral Reef Environ. Red Sea 472-490.
Boletzky, S.V. and R.T. Hanlon, 1983 A review of the laboratory maintenance, rearing and culture of cephalopod molluscs. 44:147-187. In C.F.E. Roper, C.C. Lu and F.G. Hochberg (eds.) Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria: Proceedings of the Workshop on the Biology and Resource Potential of Cephalopods, Melbourne, Australia, 9-13 March, 1981.
Born, E.W., S. Rysgaard, G. Ehlmé, M. Sejr, M. Acquarone and N. Levermann, 2003 Underwater observations of foraging free-living Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) and estimates of their food consumption. Polar Biology 26:348-357.
Boström, C. and E. Bonsdorff, 1997 Community structure and spatial variation of benthic invertebrates associated with Zostera marina (L.) beds in the northern Baltic Sea. Journal of Sea Research 37(1-2):153-166.
Boszke, L., J. Siepak and J. Falandysz, 2003 Total mercury contamination of selected organisms in Puck Bay, Baltic Sea, Poland. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 12(3): 275-286.
Bourlat, S.J., H. Nakano, M. Åkerman, M.J. Telford, M.C. Thorndyke and M. Obst, 2008 Feeding ecology of Xenoturbella bocki (phylum Xenoturbellida) revealed by genetic barcoding. Molecular Ecology Resources 8(1):18-22.
Boyden, C.R., 1972 Relationship of size to age in the cockles, Cerastoderma edule and C. glaucum from the river Crouch estuary, Essex. J. Conch. 27:475-489.
Boyden, C.R. and P.J.C. Russell, 1972 The distribution and habitat range of the brackish water cockle (Cardium (Cerastoderma) glaucum) in the British Isles. Journal of Animal Ecology 41(3):719-734.
Bradbury, A., B. Blake, C. Speck, D. Rogers, 2005 Length-weight models for intertidal clams in Puget Sound: (Bivalve regions 1, 5, 6, 7, and 8). Washington, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fish Program, Fish Management Division, FPT 05-15, 62 p.
Braley, R.D., 1992 The giant clams: Hatchery and nursery culture manual. ACIAR Monograph series 15, 144 p.
Branch, G.M., C.L. Griffiths, M.L. Branch and L. Beckley, 2005 Two oceans: a guide to marine life in southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town, 360 p.
Brawn, V.M., D.L. Peer and R.J. Bentley, 1968 Caloric content of the standing crop of benthic and epibenthic invertebrates of St. Margaret’s Bay, Nova Scotia. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 25:1803-1811.
Brown, R. A. and R. J. O'Connor, 1974 Some observations on the relationships between oyster catchers Haematopus ostralegus L. and Cockles Cardium edule L. in Strangford Lough. The Irish Naturalists' Journal 18(3):73-80.
Brun, F.G., E. van Zetten, E. Cacabelos and T.J. Bouma, 2009 Role of two contrasting ecosystem engineers (Zostera noltii and Cymodocea nodosa) on the food intake rate of Cerastoderma edule. Helgoland Marine Research 63(1):19-25.
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Cai, Y. and G. Liu, 2004 Bivalvia (Mollusca) in Nansha Islands, China. Journal of Zhanjiang Ocean University 24(1):1-8.
Callapez, P., 2003 Moluscos marinhos e fluviais do Paleolítico superior da Gruta do Caldeirão (Tomar, Portugal): evidências de ordem sistemática, paleobaiológica e paleobiogeográfica. Revista Portuguesa de Arqueologia 6(1):5-15.
Calumpong, H.P., 1992 The giant clam: an ocean culture manual. ACIAR Monograph series 16, 68 p.
Campbell, C.A., J.W. Valentine and F.J. Ayala, 1975 High genetic variability in a population of Tridacna maxima from the Great Barrier Reef. Marine Biology 33(4):341-345.
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Canestri-Trotti, G., E.M. Baccarani, F. Paesanti and E. Turolla, 2000 Monitoring of infections by protozoa of the genera Nematopsis, Perkinsus and Porospora in the smooth venus clam Callista chione from the North-Western Adriatic Sea (Italy). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 42(2):157-161.
Capdevila, M. and J. Folch, 2009 Fauna malacològica del Parc Subaquàtic de Tarragona (el Tarragonès, Catalunya, Espanya). Spira 3: 33-51.
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Carpenter, K.E. and N. De Angelis (eds.), 2016 The living marine resources of the Eastern Central Atlantic. Vol. 2: Bivalves, gastropods, hagfishes, sharks, batoid fishes, and chimaeras. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes, Rome, FAO. pp. 665-1509.
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