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References used for species in the Family Actiniidae
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[ n = 155 ] 
Acuña, F.H.l Griffiths, C.L., 2004 Species richness, endemicity and distribution patterns of South African sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria & Corallimorpharia). African Zoology 39(2):193-200.
Allen, G.R. and R. Steene, 1996 Indo-Pacific coral reef field guide. Tropical Reef Research, Singapore, 378 p.
Andrew, N. and M. Francis, 2003 The living reef. The ecology of New Zealand's rocky reefs. Craig Potton Publishing, New Zealand. 283pp.
Arnaud, P.M., 1974 Contribution à la bionomie marine benthique des régions antarctiques et subantarctiques. Téthys 6(3):467-653.
Ates, R.M.L., 1995 Gastropods carrying actinians. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Coelenterate Biology (pp. 11-20).
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Balazy, P., P. Kuklinski and N. Sanamyan, 2014 Hyas spp. crabs and sea anemones---new species associations from Svalbard. Marine Biodiversity 44(2):161-162.
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, 2000 Marine Invertebrates of the Hawaiian Islands - Summary statistics for major taxa.
Bi, Y., B. Zhang, Z.F. Zhang and J.W. Qiu, 2015 Seasonal gametogenesis of host sea anemone (Entacmaea quadricolor inhabiting Hong Kong waters. J. Ocean Univ. China 14(1):143-148.
Birkeland, C. and H. Manner, 1989 Resource survey of Ngerukewid Islands Wildlife Preserve, Republic of Palau. A report to the government of Palau, the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, World Wildlife Fund, and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, 202p.
Bisby, F.A., M.A. Ruggiero, K.L. Wilson, M. Cachuela-Palacio, S.W. Kimani, Y.R. Roskov, A. Soulier-Perkins and J. van Hertum, 2005 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2005 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
Boothby, K.M. and I.D. McFarlane, 1986 Chemoreception in sea anemones: betaine stimulates the pre-feeding response in Urticina eques and U. felina. Journal of Experimental Biology 125:385-389.
Borszcz, T. and P. Balazy, 2016 Direct evidence of sea anemone predation on Arctic echinoids. Marine Biodiversity 46(1):13-14.
Boyko, C.B., 2003 The endemic marine invertebrates of Easter Island: how many species and for how long? In p. 155-175 Loret, J.; Tanacredi, J.T. (eds). 2003. Easter Island Scientific Exploration into the World's Environmental Problems in Microcosm. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York. 240p.
Branch, G.M., C.L. Griffiths, M.L. Branch and L. Beckley, 2005 Two oceans: a guide to marine life in southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town, 360 p.
Bright, T.J., 2010 A list of species from Glover's Reef Atoll, Belize. Wildlife Conservation Society. [Accessed 22/11/2010].
Cairns, S.D., D.R. Calder, A. Brinckmann-Voss, C.B. Castro, D.G. Fautin, P.R. Pugh, C.E. Mills, W.C. Jaap, M.N. Arai, S.H.D. Haddock and D.M. Opresko, 2003 Common and Scientific Names of Aquatic Invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophore, Second Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication, no,28. XI+115.
Calado, R., 2006 Marine ornamental species from European waters: a valuable overlooked resource or a future threat for the conservation of marine ecosystems?. Scientia Marina 70(3): 389-398.
Callaway, R., J. Alsvag, I. de Boois, J. Cotter, A. Ford, H. Hinz, S. Jennings, I. Kroncke, J. Lancaster, G. Piet, P. Prince and S. Ehrich, 2002 Diversity and community structure of epibenthic invertebrates and fish in the North Sea. ICES Journal of Marine Science 59:1199-1214.
Carpine, C., 1987 Cnidairies (Meduses, Actinies et Coraux). p. 147 - 166. In Fischer, W., M. L. Bauchot and M. Schneider. 1987. Fiches FAO d' identification des espèces pour les besoins de la pêche. (Revision 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Volume I. Végëtaux et Invertébrés. Publication préparée par la FAO, résultant d'un accord entre la FAO et la Commission des Communautés européennes (Project GCP/INT/422/EEC) financëe conjointement par ces deux organisations. Rome, FAO, Vol.1.
Cheung, P.-S.C., 1991 An intertidal survey of Cape d'Aguilar, Hong Kong with special reference to the ecology of high-zoned rock pools. Hong Kong: Pok Fu Lam, University of Hong Kong, MSc Thesis, 264 p.
Chintiroglou, C. and A. Koukouras, 1992 The feeding habits of three Mediterranean sea anemone species, Anemonia viridis (Forskal), Actinia equina (Linnaeus) and Cereus pedunculatus (Pennant). Hegolander Meeresunters 46:53-68.
Chintiroglou, C.-C., C. Antoniadou and P. Damianidis, 2000 Spatial dispersion and density of the Paranemonia vouliagemeniensis population in Vouliagmeni Lagoon. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 80:941-942.
Chintiroglou, Ch., 1995 Additional records of Actinaria (Anthozoa) from Greece. Zool. Med. Leiden 69(1995):353-364.
Chiriboga, A., D. Ruiz, N. Tirado-Sanchez and S. Banks, 2016 CDF Checklist of Galapagos corals, gorgonians, sea anemones and hydroids-FCD Lista de especies de Corales, gorgonias, anemones de mar y hydroides alápagos. In Bungartz, F.; Herrera, H.; Jaramillo, P.; Tirado, N.; Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G.; Ruiz, D.; Guézou, A.; Ziemmeck, F. (eds) Charles Darwin Foundation Galapagos Species Checklist - Lista de Especies de Galápagos de la Fundación Charles Darwin. Charles Darwin Foundation / Fundación Charles Darwin, Puerto Ayora, Galapagos.
Chomsky, O., J. Douek, N.E. Chadwick, Z. Dubinsky and B. Rinkevich, 2009 Biological and population-genetic aspects of the sea anemone Actinia equina (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 375:16-20.
Çinar, M.E., M.B. Yokes, S. Acik and A.K. Bakir, 2014 Checklist of Cnidaria and Ctenophora from the coasts of Turkey. Turkish Journal of Zoology 38:677-697.
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Colin, P.L. and C. Arneson, 1995 Tropical Pacific invertebrates: A field guide to the marine invertebrates occurring on tropical Pacific coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangroves. The Coral Reef Research Foundation. Coral Reef Press. 304 pp.
Cook, S.E., K.W. Conway and B. Burd, 2008 Status of the glass sponge reefs in the Georgia Basin. Marine Environmental Research 66:S80-S86.
Cortés, J., 2009 Zoanthids, sea anemones and corallimorpharians. p. 157-160 In Wehrtmann, I.S. and Cortés, J. 2009. Marine biodiversity of Costa Rica, Central America. Springer 538pp.
Den Hartog, J.C., 1980 Notes on the food of sea turtles: Eretmochely imbricata (Linnaeus) and Dermochely coriacea (Linnaeus). Netherlands Journal of Zoology 30:595-610.
Denisenko, S.G., N.V. Denisenko, K.K. Lehtonen, A.B. Andersin and A.O. Laine, 2003 Macrozoobenthos of the Pechora Sea (SE Barents Sea): community structure and spatial distribution in relation to environmental conditions. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 258:109-123.
DiSalvo, L.H., J.E. Randall and A. Cea, 1988 Ecological reconnaissance of the Easter Island sublittoral marine environment. National Geographic Research 4(4):451-473.
Drumm, D.T., K.P. Maslenikov, R. Van Syoc, J.W. Orr, R.R. Lauth, D.E. Stevenson and T.W. Pietsch, 2016 An annotated checklist of the marine macroinvertebrates of Alaska. NOAA Professional Paper NMFS 19, 289 p. doi:10.7755/PP.19
Duffy, C.A.J. and S.T. Ahyong, 2015 Annotated checklist of the marine flora and fauna of the Kermadec Islands Marine Reserve and northern Kermadec Ridge, New Zealand. Bulletin of the Auckland Museum 20:19-124.
Dunn, D.F., 1983 Some Antarctic and sub-antarctic sea anemones (Coelenterata: Ptychodactiaria and Actiniaria). Biology of the Antarctic Seas XIV Antarctic Research Series 39(1):1-67.
Elahi, R., 2012 Diversity and structure of subtidal rock walls in the Salish Sea: the roles of grazing, oceanography, and long-term change. Biology, Doctor of Philosophy, University of Washington, 151pp.
FAO-FIES, 2007 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, [accessed 03/07/2008].
Farsi, P., J. Seyfabadi, F. Owfi and M.S. Aramli, 2015 Effect of environmental conditions on spatial distribution of macrobenthic community in Bushehr coasts of the Persian Gulf. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 15:869-878.
Fautin, D., 2007 Actinaria of New Caledonia. p. 135. In Payri, C.E., Richer de Forges, B. (eds.), Compendium of Marine Species of New Caledonia. Doc. Sci. Tech. II7, seconde édition, IRD Nouméa.
Fautin, D.G., 2007 Hexacorallians of the World.[accessed08/07/16]
Fautin, D.G., 2016 Catalog to families, genera, and species of orders Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). Zootaxa 4145(1):1-449.
Fautin, D.G. and G.R. Allen, 1992 Field guide to anemonefishes and their host sea anemones. Western Australian Museum, Francis Street, Perth.
Feder, H.M. and S.C. Jewett, 1977 Trawl survey of the epifaunal invertebrates of Norton Sound, southeastern Chukchi Sea, and Kotzebue Sound. Final Report to NOAA. R.U. No. 502. 148 p.
Fitt, W.K. and R.L. Pardy, 1981 Effects of starvation, and light and dark on the energy metabolism of symbiotic and aposymbiotic sea anemones, anthopleura elegantissima. Marine Biology 61:199-205.
Foale, S., 1998 What's in a name? An analysis of the West Nggela (Solomon Islands) fish taxonomy. SPC Traditional Marine Resource Management and Knowledge Information Bulletin No. 9:3-19.
Garilao, N., 2014 Baltic Sea species list. Personal communication, 25 April 2014. Provided excel file.
George, D., 2005 Marine invertebrates. pp. 197-220 In Hellyer, P.; Aspinall, S. (eds) The Emirates: a natural history. Trident Press: Chicago.
George, J.D., 2012 Reef-associated macroinvertebrates of the SE Gulf. p. 253-308 In Riegl, B.M.; Purkis, S.J. (eds) 2012. Coral Reefs of the Gulf: adaptation to climatic extremes. Springer Science.
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Glagolev, S.M., L.A. Abramova and A.A. Vedenin, 2006 The list of invertebrate animal species of the Chupa Bay (Kandalaksha Gulf, White Sea). The materials of the White Sea Expedition of Moscow Southwest High School Vol. 6. http://herba, [Accessed 23/04/2007]
Göthel, H., 1992 Guide de la faune sous-marine: La Méditerranée. Invertébrés marins et poissons. Eygen Ulmer GmbH & Co. 318 p.
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Gravina, M.F., G.D. Ardizzone, F. Scaletta and C. Chimenz, 1989 Descriptive analysis and classification of benthic communities in some Mediterranean coastal lagoons (Central Italy). Marine Ecology 10(2):141-166.
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Harms, J., 1993 Check list of species (algae, invertebrates and vertebrates) found in the vicinity of the island of Helgoland (North Sea, German Bight) - a review of recent records. Helgoländer Meeresunters 47:1-34.
Harvey-Clark, C., 1997 Eastern tidepool and reef: north-central Atlantic marinelife guide. Hancock House Publishers, 64pp.
Haussermann, V., 2006 Biodiversity of Chilean sea anemones (Cnidaria: Anthozoa): distribution patterns and zoogeographic implications, including new records for the fjord region. Investigaciones Marinas 34(2):23-35.
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