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References used for species in the Family Salpidae
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[ n = 81 ] 
Bathmann, U., 2002 The expedition ANTARKTIS XVIII/5b of the research vessel "Polarstern" in 2001. Berichte Polar Meeresforsch 407:1-98.
Berner, L.D., 1968 Distributional atlas of Thaliacea in the California Current region. CalCOFI Atlas 8 xi + 322.
Bhavanarayana, P.V., 1974 On the vertical distribution of pelagic tunicates in relation to the water masses in thr western part of the Bay of Bengal. Hydrobiologia 44(2-3):209-214.
Bhavanarayana, P.V. and P.N. Ganapati, 1971 Species groups among pelagic tunicates in the western part of the Bay of Bengal. Mar. Biol. 11:173-177.
Bisby, F.A., M.A. Ruggiero, K.L. Wilson, M. Cachuela-Palacio, S.W. Kimani, Y.R. Roskov, A. Soulier-Perkins and J. van Hertum, 2005 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2005 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly and J. van Hertum (eds.), 2007 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
Blanco, C., M.A. Raduan and J.A. Raga, 2006 Diet of Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) in the western Mediterranean Sea. Scientia Marina 70(3):407-411.
Bradford, J.M., R.A. Heath, F.H. Chang and C.H. Hay, 1982 The effect of warm core eddies on oceanic productivity off northeastern New Zealand. Deep-sea Research 29(12A):1501-1516.
Cardona, L., I.Á. De Quevedo, A. Borrell and A. Aguilar, 2012 Massive consumption of gelatinous plankton by Mediterranean apex predators. PloS ONE 7(3):e31329.
Casareto, B.E. and T. Nemoto, 1987 Latitudinal variation of the number of muscle fibres in Salpa thompsoni (Tunicata, Thaliacea) in the southern ocean: implications for the validity of the species Salpa gerlachei. Proc. N1PR Symp. Polar Biol. 1:90-104.
Ceccaldi, H.J., A. Kanazawa and S. Teshima, 1978 Chemical composition of some Mediterranean macroplanktonic organisms, 1. Proximate analysis. Téthys 8:295-298.
Cetta, C.M., L.P. Madin and P. Kremer, 1986 Respiration and excretion by oceanic salps. Marine Biology 91:529-537.
Chan, L.-C., 1995 The ecology of marine plankton in Tai Tam Bay, Hong Kong, with special reference to barnacle (Arthropoda: Cirripedia) larvae. Doctoral dissertation, The Univeristy of Hong Kong (Pofkulam, Hong Kong).
Cherel, Y., P. Bocher, C. De Broyer and K.A. Hobson, 2002 Food and feeding ecology of the sympatric thin-billed Pachyptila belcheri and Antarctic P. desolata prions at Iles Kerguelen, Southern Indian Ocean. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 228:263-281.
Clarke, A., L.J. Holmes and D.J. Gore, 1992 Proximate and elemental composition of gelatinous zooplankton from the Southern Ocean. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 155:55-68.
Cole, L. and G. Lambert, 2009 Tunicata (Urochordata) of the Gulf of Mexico. pp. 1209-1216 In Felder, D.L.; Camp, D.K. (eds.) Gulf of Mexico - Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas.
Curl, H.J., 1962 Analysis of carbon in marine organisms. Journal of Marine Research 20:181-188
Daponte, M.C. and G.B. Esnal, 1994 Differences in embryonological development in two closely related species: Ihlea racovitzai and Ihlea magalhanica (Tunicata, Thaliacea). Polar Biol. 14:455-458.
De Lecea, A.M., S.T. Fennessy and A.J. Smit, 2013 Processes controlling the benthic food web of a mesotrphic bight (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) revealed by stable isotope analysis (supplementary). Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 484:97-114.
Donnelly, J., J.J. Torres, T.L. Hopkins and T.M. Lancraft, 1994 Chemical composition of Antarctic zooplankton during austral fall and winter. Polar Biology 14:171-183.
Dubischar, C.D., E.A. Pakhomov and U.V. Bathmann, 2006 The tunicate Salpa thompsoni ecology in the Southern Ocean II. Proximate and elemental composition. Mar. Biol. 149:625-632.
Esnal, G.B. and M.C. Daponte, 1990 Stolon development and some aspects of musculature in the characterization of Ihlea racovitzai (van Beneden, 1913) and Ihlea magalhanica (Apstein, 1894) (Tunicata, Thaliacea). Polar Biol. 10:265-268.
Esnal, G.B., O.M. Eldan and A.M. Retamal, 1998 New data about Helicosalpa younti Kashkina 1973 (Tunicata: Thaliacea), a very rare salpid species. Bull. Mar. Sci. 62(1):73-79.
Garilao, N., 2014 Baltic Sea species list. Personal communication, 25 April 2014. Provided excel file.
Gibbons, M.J., 1997 Vertical distribution and feeding of Thalia democratica on the Agulhas Bank during March 1994. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 77:493-505.
Godeaux, J., 1960 Contributions to the knowledge of the Red Sea: 29. Tuniciers pélagiques du Golfe d'Eylath. Bull. Sea Fish. Res. Stat. Haifa 18:9-15.
Godeaux, J., 1972 Tuniciers pelagiques de l'Ocean Indien. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. India 14(1):263-292.
Gorsky, G., S. Dallot, J. Sardou, R. Fenaux, C. Carré and I. Palazzoli, 1988 C and N composition of some northwestern Mediterranean zooplankton and micronekton species. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 124(2):133-144.
Gotshall, D.W., 2005 Guide to marine invertebrates: Alaska to Baja California, 2nd ed. (revised). Sea Challengers. 117 p.
Hansson, H.G., 1989 NEAT (North East Atlantic Taxa): South Scandinavian marine Chordata check-list. [accessed 05/04/2007]
Hereu, C.M. and E. Suárez-Morales, 2012 Checklist of the salps (Tunicata, Thaliacea) from the western Caribbean Sea with a key for their identification and comments on other North Atlantic salps. Zootaxa 3210:50-60.
Hereu, C.M., B.E. Lavaniegos, G. Gaxiola-Castro and M.D. Ohman, 2006 Composition and potential grazing impact of salp assemblages off Baja California during the 1997-1999 El Niño and La Niña. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 318:123-140.
Heron, A.C., P.S. McWilliam and G.D. Pont, 1988 Length-weight relation in the salp Thalia democratica and potential of salps as a source of food. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 42(2):125-132.
Hirose, E., S. Kimura, T. Itoh and J. Nishikawa, 1999 Tunic morphology and cellulosic components of Pyrosomas, Doliolids, and Salps (Thaliacea, Urochordata). Biological Bulletin 196(1):113-120.
Hogg, O.T., D.K.A. Barnes and H.J. Griffiths, 2011 Highly diverse, poorly studied and uniquely threatened by climate change: an assessment of marine biodiversity on South Georgia's continental shelf. PLoS ONE 6(5):e19795.
Hong, S.Y., K.Y. Park, C.W. Park, C.H. Han, H.L. Suh, S.G. Yun, C.B. Song, S.G. Jo, H.S. Lim, Y.S. Kang, D.J. Kim, C.W. Ma, M.H. Son, H.K. Cha, K.B. Kim, S.D. Choi, K.Y. Park, C.W. Oh, D.N. Kim, H.S. Shon, J.N. Kim et al., 2006 Marine invertebrates in Korean coasts. Republic of Korea, Academy Publishing Company, Inc. 479 p.
Hosie, G.W., T.G. Cochran, T. Pauly, K.L. Beaumont, S.W. Wright and J.A. Kitchener, 1997 Zooplankton community structure of Prydz Bay, Antarctica, January-February 1993. Proc NIPR Symp Polar Biology 10:90-133.
Huskin, I., M.J. Elices and R. Anadón, 2003 Salp distribution and grazing in a saline intrusion off NW Spain. Journal of Marine Systems 42:1-11.
Iguchi, N. and T. Ikeda, 2004 Metabolism and elemental composition of aggregate and solitary forms of Salpa thompsoni (Tunicata: Thaliacea) in waters off the Antarctic Peninsula during austral summer 1999. Journal of Plankton Research 26:1025-1037.
Ikeda, T. and A.W. Mitchell, 1982 Oxygen uptake, ammonia excretion and phosphate excretion by krill and other Antarctic zooplankton in relation to their body size and chemical composition. Marine Biology 71:283-298.
Ikeda, T. and B. Bruce, 1986 Metabolic activity and elemental composition of krill and other zooplankton from Prydz Bay, Antarctica, during early summer (November-December). Marine Biology 92:545-555.
Jia, X., Z. Li, C. Li, Y. Qiu and J. Gan, 2004 Studies on the ecosystem and commercial fisheries resources in commercial zone and the continental shelf in South China Sea. Science Publishing, Beijing, 647 p.
Kim, S., J.-H. Won and C.-B. Kim, 2012 Taxonomic study of genus Cyclosalpa (Thaliacea: Salpida: Salpidae) from Korea. Anim. Syst. Evol. Divers. 28(4):261-268.
Kott, P., 2005 Catalogue of Tunicata in Australian Waters. Queensland Museum, Brisbane, Australia Department of the Environment and Heritage.
Lodh, N., S.N. Gajbhiye and V.R. Nair, 1988 Unusual congregation of salps off Veraval & Bombay, west coast of India. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 17:128-130.
Lüskow, F., S. Johnson, J. Johnson and E.A. Pakhomov, 2021 Gelatinous zooplankton of the Marshall Islands, Central Tropical Pacific: an inventory. Marine Biodiversity 51:56.
Mackas, D.L. and M.D. Galbraith, 1992 Zooplankton on the west coast of Vancouver Island: distribution and availability to marine birds. In: Vermeer K, Butler RW, Morgan KH (eds.) The ecology, status, and conservation of marine and shoreline birds on the west coast of Vancouver Island. Canadian Wildlife Service Occasional Paper No. 75, Ottawa.
Madhupratap, M., V.P. Devassy, S.R. Sreekumaran and T.S.S. Rao, 1980 Swarming of pelagic tunicates associated with phytoplankton bloom in the Bay of Bengal. Indian J. Mar. Sci. 9:69-71.
Madin, L.P., 1991 Distribution and taxonomy of Zooplankton in the Alboran Sea and Adjacent Mediterranean sea. A literature Survey and field guide. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute Technical Report WHOI-91-26. 200 p.
Madin, L.P., C.M. Cetta and V.L. McAlister, 1981 Elemental and Biochemical Composition of Salps (Tunicata: Thaliacea). Marine Biology 63:217-226.
Madin, L.P., P. Kremer and S. Hacker, 1996 Distribution and vertical migration of salps (Tunicata, Thaliacea) near Bermuda. Journal of Plankton Research 18(5):747-755.
MarBEF, 2006 MarBEF Data System.[accessed June 26, 2006], 2050
Matthews, D.C., 1954 Records of Hawaiian Ctenophora. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 73 (3):282-284.
Morales-Ramirez, A. and J. Nowaczyk, 2006 El zooplancton gelatinoso del Golfo Dulce, Pacifico de Costa Rica, durante la transicion de la estacion lluviosa a la seca 1997-1998. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(Suppl 1):201-223.
Murray, J., 1896 On the deep and shallow-water marine fauna of the Kerguelen region of the Great Southern Ocean. Challenger Expedition 343-500 p.
Nielsen, D.L., 2009 Large and small-scale distribution of krill (Euphausia superba) between South Georgia and Bouvet Island in the Southern Ocean. Master Thesis, Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, University of Oslo, Norway, 46p.
Nishikawa, J., M. Naganobu, T. Ichii, H. Ishii, M. Terazaki and K. Kawaguchi, 1995 Distribution of salps near the South Shetland Islands during austral summer, 1990-1991 with special reference to krill distribution. Polar Biol. 15:31-39.
O'Rorke, R., S.D. Lavery, M. Wang, R. Gallego, A.M. Waite, L.E. Beckley, P.A. Thompson and A.G. Jeffs, 2015 Phyllosomata associated with large gelatinous zooplankton: hitching rides and stealing bites. ICES Journal of Marine Science 72(Supplement 1):i124-i127.
OBIS, 2016 Iasis cylindrica (Cuvier, 1804). OBIS Search Interface. [Accessed 5/19/2016].
OBIS, 2016 Thalia democratica (Forskål, 1775). OBIS Search Interface. [Accessed 5/19/2016].
Pakhomov, E.A., 1991 Antarctic macroplankton and the nutrition of coastal fishes (in Russian). PhD thesis, P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, pp 1-263.
Pakhomov, E.A. and B.P.V. Hunt, 2017 Trans-Atlantic variability in ecology of the pelagic tunicate Salpa thompsoni near the Antarctic Polar Front. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 138:126-140.
Pakhomov, E.A., C.D. Dubischar, V. Strass, M. Brichta and U.V. Bathmann, 2006 The tunicate Salpa thompsoni ecology in the Southern Ocean. I. distribution, biomass, demography and feeding ecophysiology. Mar. Biol. 149:609-623.
Pauly, D., 2019 Growth of Salpa thompsoni. pers. comm. [07/08/2019].
Reinhardt, S.B. and E.S. Van Vleet, 1986 Lipid composition of twenty-two species of Antarctic midwater zooplankton and fish. Mar. Biol. 91:149-159.
Reinke, M., 1987 On the feeding and locomotary physiology of Salpa thompsoni and Salpa fusiformis. Berichte zur Polar- und Meeresforschung (AWI, Germany) 36:1-89.
Roberts, P.E., 1972 The plankton of Perseverance Harbour, Campbell Island, New Zealand. Pacific Science 26(3):296-309.
Ruppert, E.E., R.S. Fox and R.D. Barnes, 2004 Invertebrate Zoology. A functional evolutionary approach. 7th Ed. Brooks/Cole, Thomson Learning learning, Inc. 990 p.
Sharaf, G.M. and S.M. Al-Ghais, 1997 Distribution of zooplankton in offshore waters of the west coast of the United Arab Emirates. Kuwait J. Sci. Eng. 24(1):131-144.
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Cyclosalpa floridana Apstein. [Accessed 08/04/2016].
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Thalia democratica Forskäl, 1775. [Accessed 05/25/2016].
Southern Ocean Mollusc Database (SOMBASE), 2011 British Antarctic Survey, SOMBASE. Accessed through GBIF data portal,, 2011-07-15.
Stephen, A.C., 1938 Temperature and the incidence of certain species in western European waters in 1932-1934. J. Anim. Ecol. 7(1):125-129.
Tew, K.S. and W. Lo., 2005 Distribution of Thaliacea in SW Taiwan coastal water in 1997, with species reference to Doliolum denticulatum, Thalia democratica, and T. orientalis. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 292:181-193.
van Soest, R.W.M., 1975 Thaliacea of the Bermuda area. Bulletin zool. Mus. Univ. Amsterdam 5(2):7-12.
van Soest, R.W.M., 1973 A new species in the genus Salpa Forskal, 1775 (Tunicata, Thaliacea). Beaufortia 21(273):9-15.
van Soest, R.W.M., 1973 The genus Thalia Blumenbach, 1798 (Tunicata. Thaliacea), with descriptions of two new species. Beaufortia 20(271):192-212.
Wiebe, P.H., L.P. Madin, L.R. Haury, G.R. Harbison and L.M. Philbin, 1979 Diel vertical migration by Salpa aspera and its potential for large-scale particulate organic matter transport to the deep-sea. Mar. Biol. 53:249-255.
Wrobel, D. and C.E. Mills, 1998 Pacific coasts pelagic invertebrates: a guide to the common gelatinous animals. Sea Challengers and the Monterey Bay Aquarium, Monterey, California.112 p.
Zeldis, J.R., C.S. Davis, M.R. James, S.L. Ballara, W.E. Booth and F.H. Chang, 1995 Salp grazing: effects on phytoplankton abundance, vertical distribution and taxonomic composition in a coastal habitat. Marine Ecology Progress Series 126:267-283.
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