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References used for species in the Family Mustelidae
( mustelids )
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[ n = 64 ] 
Aquino, T., 2012 Philippine marine mammals. Personal communication 29 August 2012.
Bisby, F.A., M.A. Ruggiero, K.L. Wilson, M. Cachuela-Palacio, S.W. Kimani, Y.R. Roskov, A. Soulier-Perkins and J. van Hertum, 2005 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2005 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
Brown, K.L., 2020 Diet composition and fate of contaminants in subsistence harvested northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from Icy Strait, Alaska. University of Alaska Fairbanks, Master's thesis.
Cabrera, A., 1957 Catalogo de los mamiferos de America del sur. II (Marsupialia-Insectivora-Chiroptera-Primates-Edentata-Carnivora). Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia," Ciencias Zoológicas 4:1-308.
Campbell, R.R., 1988 Status of the sea mink, Mustela macrodon, in Canada. Can Field Nat 102:304-306.
Carlton, J.T. and J. Hodder, 2003 Maritime mammals: terrestrial mammals as consumers in marine intertidal communities. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 256:271-286.
CITES, 2009 Appendices I, II and III valid from 22 May 2009. UNEP.
CITES, 2010 Appendices I, II and III valid from 23 June 2010. UNEP.
CITES, 2011 Appendices I, II and III valid from 27 April 2011. UNEP.
CITES, 2012 Appendices I, II and III valid from 3 April 2012. UNEP.
CITES, 2013 Appendices I, II and III valid from 12 June 2013. UNEP.
CITES, 2014 Appendices I, II and III valid from 24 June 2014. UNEP.
CITES and UNEP-WCMC, 2015 The Checklist of CITES Species Website. Appendices I, II and III valid from 05 February 2015. CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland. Compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. Http:// [Accessed 04/11/2015].
CITES, UNEP-WCMC, 2016 The Checklist of CITES Species Website. Appendices I, II and III valid from 10 March 2016. CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland. Compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. [Accessed 23/06/2016].
CITES, UNEP-WCMC, 2017 The Checklist of CITES Species Website. Appendices I, II and III valid from 04 April 2017. CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland. Compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. [Accessed 01/08/2017].
CITES, UNEP-WCMC, 2017 The Checklist of CITES Species Website. Appendices I, II and III valid from 04 October 2017. CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland. Compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. [Accessed 08/17/2017].
CITES, UNEP-WCMC, 2021 The Checklist of CITES Species Website. Appendices I, II and III valid from 14 February 2021. CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland. Compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. [Accessed 16 February 2021].
Cummins, P. and R. Haigh, 2010 Ecosystem status and trends report for North coast and Hecate Strait ecozone. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document 2010/045:67p.
Davis, J.A., 1978 A classification of otters. p. 14-33. In N. Duplaix (ed.) Otters. IUCN Publication New Series. IUCN, Morges, Switzerland.
DeGange, A.R. and M.M. Vacca, 1989 Sea Otter Mortality at Kodiak Island, Alaska, during Summer 1987. Journal of Mammalogy 70(4):836-838.
Estes, J.A., 1980 Enhydra lutris. Mammalian Species 133:1-8.
FAO-FIES, 2007 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, [accessed 03/07/2008].
Foster-Turley, P., 1992 Conservation aspects of the ecology of Asian small-clawed and smooth otters on the Malay Peninsula. IUCN Otter Spec. Group Bull. 7:26-29.
Gaichas, S.K., 2006 Development and application of ecosystem models to support fishery sustainability: A case study for the Gulf of Alaska. A dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University of Washington Graduate School, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, 371 pp.
Garilao, N., 2014 Baltic Sea species list. Personal communication, 25 April 2014. Provided excel file.
Gaydos, J.K. and N.A. Brown, 2009 Species of concern within the Salish Sea marine ecosystem: changesfrom 2002 to 2008. In Proceedings of the 2009 Puget Sound Georgia Basin Ecosystem Conference e 8 to 11 February 2009. Seattle, WA: Environment Canada and the Puget Sound Partnership. 10 p.
Gaydos, J.K. and S.F. Pearson, 2011 Birds and mammals that depend on the Salish Sea: a compilation. Northwestern Naturalist 92(2):79-94.
Guénette, S.S., J.J.S. Heymans, V. Christensen and A.W. Trites, 2006 Ecosystem models show combined effects of fishing predation, competition and ocean productivity on Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 63:2495-2517.
Hatt, R.T., 1959 The mammals of Iraq. Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, no. 106.
HELCOM, 2012 Check list of Baltic Sea macro-species. Baltic Sea Environ. Proc. 130, 203 p.
Hussain, S.A., B. Kanchanasakha, P.K. de Silva and A. Olson, 2008 Lutra sumatrana. In IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. . Downloaded on 26 March 2010.
Inskipp, T. and H.J. Gillet, 2005 Checklist of CITES species and Annotated CITES Appendices and reservations. Compiled by UNEPWCMC. CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland and UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. 339 pp. and CD-ROM.
IUCN, 2010 2010 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.2. Downloaded in August 2010.
IUCN, 2015 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.4. IUCN 2015. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded in December 2015.
IUCN, 2006 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. [Accessed 04/07/2007].
Jameson, R.J., K.W. Kenyon, A.M. Johnson and H.M. Wight, 1982 History and status of translocated sea otter populations in North America. Wildlife Society Bulletin 10(2):100-107.
Jefferson, T.A., S. Leatherwood and M.A. Webber, 1993 FAO species Identification Guide: Marine Mammals of the World. Rome, FAO. 320 p. + 587 figures.
Kenyon, K.W., 1969 The sea otter in the eastern Pacific Ocean. N. Amer. Fauna 68:1-352.
Kingston, S., M. O'Conell and J.S. Fairley, 1999 Diet of otters Lutra lutra on Inishmore, Aran Islands, west coast of Ireland. Biology and Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 99B(3):173-182.
Kruuk, H., B. Kanchanasaka, S. O'Sullivan and S. Wanghongsa, 1994 Niche separation in three sympatric otters Lutra perspicillata, Lutra lutra and Aonyx cinerea in Huai Kha Khaeng, Thailand. Biological Conservation 69:115-120.
Laidre, K.L., J.A. Estes, M.T. Tinker, J. Bodkins, D. Monson and K. Schneider, 2006 Patterns of growth and body condition in sea otters from the Aleutian archipelago before and after the recent population decline. Journal of Animal Ecology 75(4):978-989.
Manville, R.H., 1966 The extinct sea mink, with taxonomic notes. Proc US Natl Mus 122(3584):1-12., 2050
Medina-Vogel, G., C.D. Rodríguez, R.E. Alvarez P. and J.L. Bartheld V., 2004 Feeding ecology of the marine otter (Lutra felina) in a rocky seashore of the south of Chile. Marine Mammal Science 20(1):134-144.
Ng, P.K. and N. Sivasothi, 1999 Guide to the Mangroves of Singapore II (Animal Diversity). Singapore Science Centre, pp. 1-158.
Nowak, R.M., 2003 Walker's Marine mammals of the world. 6th edition. John Hopkins University Press. 264 p.
Osgood, W.H., 1943 The mammals of Chile. Publications of the Field Museum of Natural History, Zoological Series 30:1-268.
Palomares, M.L.D., P.M.E. Sorongon, A. Hunter and D. Pauly, 2008 On the growth of some marine mammals. In Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. (eds.). On the Growth of Some Non-Fish Marine Organisms. Fisheries Centre Research Reports V(n). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia [ISSN 1198-6727], pp. 13-20.
Perrin, W.F., B. Wursig and J.G.M. Thewissen, 2009 Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, Second Edition. Academic Press: London. 1316pp.
Pocock, R.I., 1941 The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia. Volume II. Carnivora (continued from volume I), suborders Aeluroidea (part) and Arctoidea. Taylor and Francis, Ltd., London. 503 pp.
Rice, D.W., 1998 Marine Mammals of the World Systematics and Distribution. Special Publication number 4: The Society for Marine Mammalogy. 231p.
Rosas, F.C.W., C.S. da Rocha, G.E. de Mattos and S.M. Lazzarini, 2009 Body weight-length relationships in Giant Otters (Pteronura brasiliensis) (Carnivora, Mustelidae). Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 52(3): 587-591.
Ruiz-Olmo, J. and J. Jiménez, 2009 Diet diversity and breeding of top predators are determined by habitat stability and structure: a case study with the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra L.). European Journal of Wildlife Research 55(2):133.
SAUP Database, 2006 SAUP Database.
Schneider, K.B., 1973 Age determination of sea otter final report. Alaska Department of Fish and Game Fed. Aid in Wildl. Restoration Prog. Rep., Projs. W-17-4 and W-17-5. 25 pp.
Taastrøm, H.M. and L. Jacobsen, 1999 The diet of otters (Lutra lutra L.) in Danish freshwater habitats: comparisons of prey fish populations. Journal of Zoology 248(1):1-13.
The Joint Secretariat, 2003 Inuvialuit harvest study: data and methods report 1988-1997. Available from IRC, Box, 2120.
Theng, M., N. Sivasothi and H.H. Tan, 2016 Diet of the smooth-coated otter Lutrogale perspicillata (Geoffroy, 1826) at natural and modified sites in Singapore. Raffl. Bull. Zool.
Tinker, M.T., J.A. Estes, K. Ralls, T.M. Williams, D. Jessup and D.P. Costa, 2007 Population Dynamics and Biology of the California Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) at the Southern End of its Range. MMS OCS Study 2006-007. Coastal Research Center, Marine Science Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, California. MMS Cooperative Agreement Number 14-35-0001-31063. 253 pages.
Turvey, S. and K. Helgen, 2008 Neovison macrodon.. In IUCN 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. . [Accessed 01/02/2010].
Van Zyll de Jong, C.J., 1972 A Systematic Review of the Nearctic and Neotropical River Otters (Genus Lutra, Mustelidae, Carnivora). Life Sciences Contributions. Royal Ontario Museum 80:1-104.
Vincent, T.L.S., D. Scheel and K.R. Hough, 1998 Some aspects of diet and foraging behavior of Octopus dofleini (Wülker, 1910) in its Northernmost Range. P.S.Z.N.:Marine Ecology. Blackwell Wissenschafts-Verlag, Berlin 19(1):13-29.
Weerakon, D.K., 2012 The taxonomy and conservation status of mammals in Sri Lanka. The National Red List 2012 of Sri Lanka, 134p.
Wood, J.B. and C.L. Day, 1998 CephBase. [Accessed 26/01/06].
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